Thursday, March 12, 2020

Animal venoms Essay Example

Animal venoms Essay Example Animal venoms Essay Animal venoms Essay Mass spectrometric appraisal of bioactive peptides in European wolf spider venom Hazard Appraisals Literature Review Introduction: Animal venoms have been identified as playing a cardinal function in find and development of new drugs as they contain a big sum of unknown pharmacologically active molecules.1 Deadly animate beings subdue their quarry by utilizing their venoms which are rather complex mixtures that contain a big sum of peptide toxins.2 Some of these toxins are thought to hold pharmaceutical and insecticidal effects due to the selective and effectual manner they target receptors.2 This theory led to an addition in the figure of new toxins being identified and characterised.2 Spiders are thought to be the most successful deadly animate beings as they contain the largest figure of peptide toxins when compared to other deadly animals.2 Spider venoms are turn outing to be highly utile doing them to be â€Å"recognized as one of the most exciting beginnings of novel tools for pharmacological research and curative leads†.3 Spider venoms: There are about 39,000 known species of spiders, with even more needing charcterisation.4There are two chief groups of spiders and these are the Orthognatha ( mygalomorphs ) and the Labidognatha ( anaeomorphs ) .5 The differences in these groups are characterized by the place of the chelicerae and the motion of the Fangs. About all spiders are marauders and largely feed on insects and other arthropods.5 Larger species of spiders can besides feed on little birds, serpents, chiropterans, rats, lizards and frogs.5 Most spiders have venom secretory organs and the venoms secreted from them tend to be colorless liquids that can be dissolved in water.5 In most instances these venoms are impersonal or alkalic, but some are known to be acidic.5 Venoms from spiders are diverse as they differ between species and within the same species.5 The chief intent of a spider s venom is to enable it to disable and kill its prey.5 It besides may assist the spider digest its quarry and can move as a self-d efense tool against other predators.5 Spiders can either assail their quarry utilizing their Fangs or gaining control it by utilizing their webs, but normally either manner the quarry is killed as a consequence of the venom s effects.5 A bulk of spiders are in fact harmless to worlds but there are a few species that can do fatal bites.5 Spider venoms are thought to incorporate about several million peptides1, although merely a few spider venoms have been to the full investigated go forthing a huge figure still to be studied and identified.4 Spider venoms provide the perfect focal point for analytical probe as the scope of their constituents varies greatly in molecular weight and pharmaceutical function.6 These venoms contain active biological molecules which can aim a scope of of import normal maps in insects and mammals.5/7 Spider peptides differ well in their pharmacological activity and structure8 and a really little sum of venom can exercise a powerful biological effect.3 Spider venoms are a really complex â€Å"cocktail† of low molecular weight constituents, polypeptide toxins and proteins,9 but peptides are the chief constituents in about all spider venoms.4 The low molecular weight compounds include inorganic salts, free amino acids, biogenic aminoalkanes, enzymes, neurotransmitters and nucleic acids.5/9 These toxins are known to aim a scope of receptors.3 Classs and maps of spider peptides: Deadly animate beings contain a figure of molecules that have effects similar to receptors and enzymes which comprise the two chief categories of marks for the action of drugs.10 These compounds found in their venoms contain a scope of bioactive molecules that have certain pharmacological effects at peculiar targets.9 Spider venoms have been shown to possess a huge beginning of peptide ligands that mark ion channels such as K, Ca and Na and these toxins have been studied to find the construction and roles these channels have in cells.5 The toxins in spider venom can be classified on their chemical nature, their pharmacological effects and their molecular degree effects.10 These toxins can be divided into two chief groups and these are neurolysins and non-neurotoxic peptides.7 Neurotoxins act against neuron receptors, neuron ion channels and presynaptic membrane proteins that affect neurotransmitter release.5/7 Non-neurotoxic peptides are peptides with antimicrobic or necrotic effects .7 The chief intent of a spiders venom is the palsy of their quarry, so this venom contains a figure of toxins which act on the nervous system.5 The neurotoxic activity of these venoms is due to the consequence they have on cellular receptors such as ion channels.8 To day of the month a bulk, if non all spider neurolysins identified are proteins, peptides or acylpolyamines.5 The neurolysins isolated from spider venoms can hold assorted manners of action such as impacting glutamatergic transmittal, exciting sender release and barricading postsynaptic cholinergic receptors.5 They act by upseting the basic cell map and impact the cell membrane receptors.5 Due to these actions they could be good in the survey of these receptors by modulating their map in a manner that is the same as the drug action.5 Polypeptide toxins are known to move as ion channel inhibitors and pore- forming peptides.9 Acylpolyamines act by barricading the insects neuromuscular junction taking to paralysis.9 They w ork by barricading the ion channels that target glutamate receptors, voltage-activated Ca channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.9 Polypeptides and acylpolyamines are the chief constituents in spider venoms.9 Two illustrations of antimicrobic peptides that have been characterized within the last 10 old ages are Lycotoxins I and II and they came from the venom of the wolf spider ( Lycosa carolinensis ) .4 European wolf spider venoms: European wolf spiders are the â€Å"giants of the spider world† and are normally feared due to their big size.3 They belong to the mygalamorph group11 but lone spiders within the Theraphosidae household are classified as true tarantulas.3 There are about 860 theraphosid species and they can be found worldwide from tropical rain forests to comeuppances or savannas.3 Although there are a little figure of exclusions, European wolf spiders are non peculiarly harmful to worlds with most bites doing symptoms such as mild to severe hurting, itchiness, stiffness of articulations and conceited limbs.3 Tarantula venoms represent an copiousness of new pharmacologically active molecules for a scope of cell receptors and ion channels.3 Like about all other spiders, European wolf spiders are marauders and provender on a assortment of insects and little animate beings such as rats as prey.3 A European wolf spider s ability to capture quarry that is larger than it without the usage of webs, s uggests that these animals are both strong and possess venoms that are really efficient at moving rapidly on the quarries nervous system.3 Tarantula venoms are complex mixtures of constituents such as peptides, polyamines, free amino acids, salts, proteins and enzymes.3 The hurting experienced after a bite can be due to a figure of things such as local hurting caused by the Fangs, the venom s low pH and effects of biogenic amines.3 These venoms seem to change in authority depending on whether the quarry is a craniate or an invertebrate.3 The Chilean European wolf spider ( Grammostola spatulata ) was one of the first species to be studied as it was highly popular as a pet and because it produces big sums of venom.3 Cobalt Blue European wolf spider ( Haplopelma lividum ) : The Cobalt Blue European wolf spider belongs to the Theraphosidae household and is found in the rain forests of South East Asia.8 This burrowing spider prefers warm temperatures with a humidness degree of around 80 % .12This European wolf spider has a leg span of 4-5 inches and is really popular among tarantula enthusiasts8, particularly because of its electric blue coloring. The Cobalt bluish European wolf spider is known to be rather fast and is one of the most aggressive tarantulas.8This aggressiveness is a common trait in Asiatic European wolf spider. These European wolf spiders are antisocial by nature and be given to be rather shy.13 Cobalt blue European wolf spider can remain in their tunnels for hebdomads on terminal merely go forthing in hunt of nutrient and water.14 They favour crickets to other signifiers of quarry but they will besides eat cockroaches and other big insects.12The Cobalt blue, unlike other European wolf spiders do non hold urticating hairs so they use seize with teething as agencies of defense.13 The authority of their venom can be indicated to some grade from studies of pet proprietors who have experienced painful bites from these tarantulas.6 Their venom is non really likely to do any terrible effects in worlds and no deceases have been reported for this species. When the Cobalt Blue European wolf spider feels threatened it will raise up on its dorsum legs as warning before biting, which is their lone signifier of self-defense.12 In an experiment carried out by Pierre Escoubas and Lachlan Rash, it was noted that the mice died after 10 proceedingss when they were given an intracerebraventricular injection with 0.1 µl of the venom from this tarantula.3 Decision: There are about 39,000 species of spiders that are recognized to day of the month but merely a little sum of these species have been investigated so far, for the potentially utile toxins they may incorporate. The aim of this undertaking is to utilize MALDI-TOF/Q-TOF/ion trap mass spectroscopy to place and qualify the bioactive peptides in Cobalt Blue European wolf spider s venom. Plan of Probe Purpose: The purpose of this undertaking is to measure the bioactive peptides in the venom from the Colbalt blue ( Haplopelma lividum ) European wolf spider from the Theraphosidae household utilizing ion trap, matrix-assisted optical maser desorption ionisation time-of-flight ( MALDI-TOF ) and quadruplicate clip of flight ( QTOF ) mass spectroscopy. Method: 1. The European wolf spider venom that will be used for appraisal will come in pre-fractionated samples. 2. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy will be used in order to measure the molecular weight of the peptides. This will supply accurate mass findings and primary sequencing information that will assist infer unknown peptide sequences. 3. Additionally QTOF and ion trap mass spectroscopy will be used to set up the atomization profiles of the peptides. 4. Vinyl pyridine is a protein alkylating agent that will be used to observe the presence of disulfide bonds in the peptides. 5. A chemical alteration trial will be carried out to place cysteine rich peptides. 6. MS/MS techniques will be used to find the construction of the peptides. 7. A database hunt will be conducted to find if there is any homology with bing peptides. 8. Last the pharmacological function of these peptides as venom constituents and their possible pharmaceutical map will be postulated. Experiments and controls: In this undertaking the bioactive peptides are analysed utilizing a figure of mass spectroscopy processs.  · Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry is an analytical technique that is an of import tool used in the analysis and word picture of biomolecules such as peptides.15 How it works: A mass spectrometer is made up of three cardinal parts which are the ionisation beginning, the analyzer and the detector.16 1. The sample is loaded into the ionisation beginning of the mass spectrometer instrument. 2. The sample molecules undergo ionisation in this country which consequences in formation of positively charged ions. 3. These ions are accelerated by a magnetic field and are extracted into the analyser country of the mass spectrometer where they are detached harmonizing to their mass to bear down ratios ( m/z ) . 4. The detached ions are detected and this signal is sent to the information system where the mass to bear down ratios are stored together with their comparative copiousness for presentation in the format of an m/z spectrum. The Mass Spectrometer, accessed 2009 December 1, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: //  · MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight ( MALDI-TOF ) mass spectroscopy is an of import analytical tool used in life sciences for protein and peptide analysis.16This instrument enables mass to be determined accurately15 and due to its truth it is really successful in protein designation and characterization.17 In MALDI mass spectroscopy the sample is bombarded with a optical maser to bring forth ionisation. MALDI mass spectroscopy vaporizes and ionise both little and big molecules without damaging them.17The time-of-flight ( TOF ) analyser accelerates the ions utilizing an electric field and measures the clip they reach the detector.15 Control: This instrument will be calibrated with a known sample that will be analysed independently each twenty-four hours before the venom samples are analysed. Diagram: A diagram of a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry, accessed 2009 December 3, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: //  · Q-TOF Mass Spectrometry Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy uses hovering electric Fieldss to go through the ions to the sensor. This instrument is rather similar to the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer in that it has the same sample demands but it has better declaration leting more information to be given for protein individuality via MS/MS experiments.18/19 Control: This instrument is calibrated in the same manner as the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Diagram: A diagram of a Q-TOF mass spectrometer runing in MS and MS/MS manners Q-TOF mass spectrometer Ashcroft A.E, An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry, accessed 2009 December 3, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: //  · Ion trap Mass Spectrometry Ion trap mass spectroscopy is an instrument that is able to place little and big molecules and is used to happen their molecular mass.20This instrument takes the ions that were created, in this instance from matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation procedure and uses an electrostatic lens system system to put them in the ion trap.20 Control: This instrument does non necessitate calibrated on a day-to-day footing or every clip it is used, as it merely needs calibrated one time a twelvemonth. Diagram: A diagram of an Ion trap mass spectrometer Janscher K.R, Yates J.T, The Why and Whies of Quadrupole Ion trap Mass Spectrometry, accessed 2009 December 3, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 1996/Sep96iontrap.html Costings  · Equipment: The equipment that will be used for the continuance of this undertaking is MALDI-TOF, QTOF and ion trap mass spectroscopy. The cost for each is shown below and includes the cost for all chemicals needed for its usage.  · MALDI-TOF Cost per usage ten figure of times needed = sum cost ?1.70 x 10 = ?17.00  · QTOF Cost per usage ten figure of times needed = sum cost ?18.04 x 4 = ?72.16  · Ion trap Cost per usage ten figure of times needed = sum cost ?3.74 x 5 = ?18.70 * Total cost for equipment use = ?17.00 + ?72.16 + ?18.70 = ?107.86  · Reagents: The reagents that will be used for the continuance of this undertaking are 4-vinyl pyridine, dithiothreitol ( DTT ) , ammonium hydrogen carbonate and trypsin. The costs for each is shown below in the measures needed. * 4-vinyl pyridine-This is used as a protein alkylating agent Cost for 100ML= ?18.30 * Dithiothreitol ( DTT ) This is used for cut downing the protein disulfide bonds Cost for 50ML = ?31.80  · Ammonium Bicarbonate Cost for 25g = ?8.60 * Trypsin- This hydrolyses the proteins into smaller amino acids Cost for 1VL= ?42.20 * Total cost for reagents = ?18.30 + ?31.80 + ?8.60 + ?42.20 = ?100.90 * Total cost for undertaking = entire cost of equipment + entire cost of reagents = ?107.86 + ?100.90 = ?208.76 Mentions 1. Escoubas P, King G.F, Venomics as a drug find platform, Expert Review Proteomics, 2009, Volume 6, Issue 3 ; 221-224, accessed 2009 November 28, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // cookieSet=1 2. Wood D. LA et Al, Arachno Server: a database of peptide toxins from spiders, BMS Genomics Journal, August 2009, Volume 10, Issue 375, accessed 2009 November 29, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 3. Escoubas P, Rash L, Tarantulas: eight-legged druggists and combinative chemists, Toxicon Journal, 2004, Volume 43 ; 555-574, accessed 2009 November 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // _ob_MImg A ; _imagekey=B6TCS-4BWW8PS-2-G A ; _cdi=5178 A ; _user=126978 4. Liu Z.H, Qian W, Zhang Y, Liang S, Biochemical and pharmacological survey of venom of the wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 2009, Volume 15, No 1, accessed 2009 November 30, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // script=sci_arttext amp ; pid=S1678-91992009000100008 5. Rash L.D, Hodgson W.C, Pharmacology and biochemistry of spider venoms, Toxicon Journal, 2002, Volume 40 ; 225-254, accessed 2009 November 11, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // ob=MImg A ; _imagekey=B6TCS-44D3TCN-1-7 A ; _cdi=5178 A ; _user=126978 6. Moore S et Al, Mass spectrometric word picture and quantitation of selected low molecular mass compounds from the venom of Haplopelma lividum ( Theraphosidae ) , 2008, accessed 2009 November 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 7. Choi S.J et Al, Isolation and word picture of Psalmopeotoxin I and II: two novel antimalarial peptides from the venom of the European wolf spider Psalmopoeus cambridgei, 2004, Volume 572 ; 109-117, accessed 2009 November 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // _ob=MImg A ; _imagekey=B6T36-4CX6SFO-1-1 A ; _cdi=4938 A ; _user=126978 8. Escoubas P, Diochot S, Corzo G, Structure and pharmaceutics of spider venom neurolysins, 2000, Volume 82 ; 893-907, accessed 2009 November 23, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // _ob=MImg A ; _imagekey=B6VRJ-431B1CT-C-7 A ; _cdi=6236 A ; _user=126978 9. Escoubas P, Bosmans F, Spider peptide toxins as leads for drug development, Expert Opinion Review, 2007 ; 823-835, accessed 2009 November 19, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 10. Pimenta A.M.C, De Lima M.E, Small peptides, large universe: biotechnological potency in ignored bioactive peptides from arthropod venoms, Journal of Peptide Science, 2005, Volume 11 ; 670-676, accessed 2009 November 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 11. Shirey K, Jones S, Rayburn J, Toxicity of venom from two European wolf spider species, Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, April 2009, accessed 2009 November 30, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 12. Information on Cobalt Blue Tarantula, accessed 2009 November 26, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // /article-cobalt-blue-tarantula.php 13. Colbalt Blue Tarantula, accessed 2009 December 1, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 14. The Cobalt Blue Tarantula, accessed 2009 November 26, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 15. Lennon J.L, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry, accessed 2009 December 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 16. Ashcroft, A.E, An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry, accessed 2009 December 1, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 17. Lewis J.K, Wei J, Siuzdak G, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in Peptides and Protein Analysis, Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, 2000 ; 5880-5894, accessed 2009 November 30, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 18. Cornelis E.C.A, Application of Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to Facilitate Metabolite Identification, accessed 2009 November 30, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // contentID=31 19. Q-TOF Mass Spectrometry, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, accessed 2009 December 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: // 20. Janscher K.R, Yates J.R, The Why and Wherefore of Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry, accessed 2009 December 5, cited at hypertext transfer protocol: //

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Transport planning policy article critique Essay

Transport planning policy article critique - Essay Example â€Å"Peak everything† is a phrase that Heinberg and other ecological advocates use to indicate that most finite resources are reaching or will reach exploitation limits and will thereafter only give less and less of the resource at higher and higher cost, but peak oil has achieved special attention. Since every element of the economy needs petrochemicals in production (and not just in factories but also in high-intensity Green Revolution agriculture), consumption, transportation and distribution, peak oil means the end of growth, since every element of the society becomes perpetually more expensive. The connection with transportation is obvious: Transportation must be sustainable if it is to be relevant. Hank Dittmar's Transport and Neighbourhoods (2008), and his earlier collaboration with Ditland (2004), emphasizes sustainability in its approach. Dittmar argues that sustainability will have to be part of a ground-up approach to design. It's meaningless, for example, to make it easier to navigate an inner city without a car if the people who work at the inner city commute from a suburb that is designed for urban sprawl. Dittmar argues for sustainable cities. These cities are characterized by a number of factors: 1. Sustainable transportation and sustainable city design being interlinked 2. ... calls â€Å"the five minute pint†, or the five minute trip to a local pub; this means that it's not just walkability for access to essential institutions like groceries and schools, but also walkability to reasonable centers of entertainment and social interaction 5. Accessible public transportation: A subway is meaningless if it takes a car to get there 6. Market-based strategies 7. Scale of problem demands immediate and technological solutions Dittmar's position as a Prince Foundation urban design analyst does provide his claims with authority and plausibility, but I fear as I look at his analysis that perhaps there is the classic problem of an expert analyzing his own issue. First: Experts tend to reduce everything to their core issue. Second: Experts often can only see things within the theoretical blinders of their own profession. Urban planning and transportation are obviously connected, but it seems naive to think that it's just urban planning and its inaccessibility to non-commuting approaches causes driving issues. There are obviously numerous other factors. Gas and oil subsidies in the West, particularly in America, make it artificially easy to drive cars (Geiger and Hamburger, 2010). In general, public investment into research provides corporations with the means to produce antisocial institutions: Research in general should focus on other factors. There's also a culture of car ownership. Cars are signs of independence, prosperity and masculinity: The purr of a Lamborghini still has great pull even in this increasingly green age. It's possible to design a city where no one needs to drive a car, and people will still prefer to. And the problem is that mass transportation not being sexy means that less people ride, which reduces the number of stops the system

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Nursing 220 topic, any age group, relatd to oncology, hematology, Essay

Nursing 220 topic, any age group, relatd to oncology, hematology, immunology, acute neurology, emergency or critcal care nursing - Essay Example ach utilizing the evidence from current nursing research literature so the best nursing practice in this specific area of oncologic nursing practice is established. Review of Literature: Stanley in her note, "Partners in Cancer Care" published from Oncology Nursing Society has highlighted the importance and availability of best evidence for managing common cancer symptoms. Evidence in support of nursing practice in this area is known to be accumulating exponentially, which demands utilization of these evidences in the clinical practice. Literature consistently demonstrates identifiable evidence base for oncology nursing and the impacts of these evidence-based interventions in patient outcomes as far as the oncology nursing practice is concerned. It is also important to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions used for cancer symptom management, so recommendations for future practice can be made to result in improvement in patient care that can be measured. (Stanley, KJ., 2006). Nausea and vomiting continues to be significant side effects of cancer therapy that add to the distress of the patients. Optimal antiemetic prophylaxis in cancer patients receiving chemo and radiotherapies has been the subject of many trials. The Antiemetic Subcommittee of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) in their review presents the findings up to the year 2004. Classically, the chemotherapeutic agents have been classified with high, moderate, low, and minimal emetogenic potentials. The current recommendations support a three-drug regimen that includes a 5-HT3 antagonist such as ondansetron 32 mg, dexamethasone 12 mg, and aprepitant 125 mg on day 1, followed by dexamethasone 8 mg daily on days 2 to 4, and aprepitant 80 mg on days 2 to 3 provides a complete response of no emesis with no use of rescue antiemetic in prevention of vomiting and nausea induced by chemotherapy of high emetogenic risk. Likewise, there are recommendations for moderate

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Tunnel of Love Essay Example for Free

Tunnel of Love Essay Earth has many hidden, unique and beautiful places. Ukraine boasts one of the most romantic places in the world: Tunnel of Love. Located near the town Klevan, â€Å"The Tunnel of Love† became an unique attraction in the world. It was formed on the train tracks, through union branches of trees, turning into a tunnel of green vegetation. There is however one problem with this â€Å"tunnel†. As it passes a train track and should be on your toes if you want to visit him. The Tunnel which covers railway conducted over a length of about three kilometers. This is the way of a train carrying for a wood factory in the region three times a day. They say that couples who go through the tunnel and make a wish have their wish fulfilled. Klevan is an urban-type settlement in the Rivne Raion of Rivne Oblast in western Ukraine. Its population is 7,470 as of the 2001 Ukrainian Census. Klevan is accessed via the T1B17 and H22 roads, and is located 28. 3 km northwest of Rivne and 50. 4 kilometres southeast of Lutsk along the H22. Klevan lies on the Stubla River. There’s a real place in the Ukraine that looks like this. This beautiful train tunnel filled with greenery is located in Kleven, Ukraine. Locals call it the â€Å"Tunnel of Love† and it’s beautiful even when it’s not all green. We love seeing natural architecture here at Inhabitat, and the leafy green Kleven train tunnel is a beautiful example of what happens when nature is allowed to grow freely around manmade infrastructure. The tunnel was made over many years as the passing train molded the trees’ lines. The train turned a luscious piece of woodland into a unique passageway as it traveled back and forth 3 times a day over several years. In addition to serving as a train route, the tunnel is used by lovers to make a wish – it is said that if they are sincere in their love, their wishes will come true. If you are out and about Ukraine, don’t miss this fantastic green passageway – whether you are with a loved one, or on your own. This gorgeous long, leafy tunnel looks like a green dream or a scene from a film but it can actually be found deep in the forests of Ukraine. Located near the town of Kleven, this luscious green tunnel provides passage for a private train that provides wood to a local factory. Measuring 1. 8 miles long, the unusual rail route in Eastern Europe is also a popular spot for lovers promises. The train turned a luscious piece of woodland into a unique passageway as it traveled back and forth 3 times a day over several years. The tunnel was made over many years as the passing train molded the trees lines. In addition to serving as a train route, the tunnel is used by lovers to make a wish it is said that if they are sincere in their love, their wishes will come true. If you are out and about Ukraine, dont miss this fantastic green passageway. Its worth seeing whether you are with a loved one, or on your own.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Roddy Doyle :: essays research papers

Roddy Doyle is an amazing writer and is seen by his friends as a studious-looking and down-to-earth kind of guy. He is one of the new breed of young Irish artists who came of age in the 1960’s and 1970’s.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Roddy Doyle was born in May of 1958 in the northern Dublin suburb of Kilbarrack, Ireland. From Roddy Doyle’s point of view, he seemed to have had a happy childhood, especially when he told an interviewer, â€Å" There are memories of my own childhood, running through a field and seeing pheasants fly up, balls of dust under the kitchen table, and my parents happily married.† He also said talking about his childhood that â€Å"The place was mine, and the time was mine.† He was raised in a middle-class family, quite different from the gritty, working-class characters in his books. He attended St. Fintan’s Christian Brothers School in Sutton and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts. He continued his education at University College, Dublin, where he achieved a Bachelors degree in English and geography. He undertook teacher training at Greendale Community School, in Kilbarrack, and after getting certified, he became a member of that schoolâ€⠄¢s faculty. He taught fourteen years at Greendale, where he was known to his students as â€Å"Punk† Doyle because of the earring and the Doc Martens boots he wore. Doyle is currently married to Belinda Doyle and has two sons, Rory and Jack Doyle. Since 1993, Doyle has been dedicated to writing full time.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Doyle’s first novel came in the 1980’s. The novel was titled Your Granny’s a Hunger Striker; Doyle said it was â€Å"brilliant,† but after that it went completely downhill. Later in the 80’s, approximately 1986, he published the first successful novel of his writing career. The name of it was The Commitments, which, with the help of a friend, he published himself under the â€Å"King Farouk† imprint, and sold himself. One copy of his book landed at William Heinemann, a London-based publishing house. Heinemann enjoyed the book so much he decided to publish it himself in 1987. Two years later, Random House published the book in the United States. This was Doyle’s big start. After his success he wrote two more novels, The Snapper, and The Van. The Van was such a well written novel that it was a finalist for the 1991 Booker Prize Award. Finally in 1993, success struck again.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Cloth vs Diapers

Cloth Vs Disposable Diapers†¦.. What’s Best? Introduction Diapers have been used by humans throughout history. But, the word diaper did not originally refer to its use. Instead, the term originally referred to a type of cloth with a pattern of small repeated geometric shapes. The first diapers were made of a special type of soft cloth cut in geometric shapes. The method of creating geometric shapes in cloth was called diapering, but it eventually gave the name of the cloth used in making diapers back in 1590s in England. Diaper is used on children who are not yet toilet trained to prevent bed-wetting and to keep babies’ skin clean and dry.While it was originally made of cloth material, several variations and improvements were made on the diaper resulting in the creation of disposable diaper. Unlike cloth diapers which can be washed and reused multiple times, disposable diapers are thrown away after use (Leverich). The boom of the disposable diaper industry suggests that it is more preferred by parents that its cloth counterpart. Parents choose what they think is best for their baby. Hence, while the use of disposable diaper has become a trend, it actually has a number of disadvantages that may want parents to reconsider using cloth diapers.Health and Comfort One of the main reasons of using diapers is to provide comfort for the baby by keeping their skin dry, healthy and free from rashes. Prolong wetness irritates the baby’s skin and cause rashes. Cloth diaper is made from non-absorbent materials and thus it requires frequent diaper changes in order to keep the baby’s skin dry. Frequent diaper changes can be avoided when using disposable diaper since it consists of a superabsorbent substance called sodium polyacrylate that is capable of absorbing water up to 100 times its weight (O’Mara, 2003).Since disposable diapers gives a sense of dryness even after a few wettings, parents can leave the disposable diapers on for hours . While disposable diaper is more convenient for the parents, studies have shown that it can cause a number of health problems to babies. A study published in the Journal of Pediatrics reported that 54 percent of one-month old babies using disposable diapers developed rashes, while 16 percent developed severe rashes. Another study also suggests that disposable diaper increased the incidence of diaper rash from 7. percent to 61 percent. Diaper rash occurs with disposable diapers because even if it can hold large quantities of urine, the slightly wet materials that are against baby’s skin for hours can cause rashes (The New Parents Guide, 2012). Moreover, disposable diaper is well-sealed and therefore prevents proper circulation of air. It also traps the bacteria and ammonia that is produced when bacteria breaks down urine (O’Mara, 2003). It is apparent that in terms of health and comfort, cloth diaper offers more comfort and helps keep the baby’s skin healthy. Co nvenienceParents opt for disposable diapers primarily for convenience. First, disposable diapers are thrown after use. Second, disposable diapers comes in convenient Velcro and snap closures that keep it securely fastened and well-fitted. Some diaper lines also include wetness indicator that tells the parents when it is time to change. Indeed, versus the traditional cloth diaper, disposable diaper is more convenient. However, cloth diapers have evolved as well. Gone were the days when cloth diapers are fastened by safety pins that could dangerously prick the baby’s skin.Modern cloth diapers are as convenient as its disposable counterpart. Most cloth diapers are now featured with Velcro fasteners and some are fitted similar to disposable diapers, which makes diaper changes convenient and easy (Leverich). However, despite the innovations of cloth diaper, disposable diaper is still more convenient especially during travels wherein soiled diapers can just be thrown and do not nee d to be carried along for washing (The New Parents Guide, 2012). CostCost is one of the factors that parents consider in choosing a diaper. Compared to disposable diaper, cloth diaper is more economical since it can be used again and again. Disposable diaper can cost as much as 32 cents per use compared to cloth diaper which only costs 5 cents per use. Washing the diapers yourself or even when using a laundry service will still result in significant savings (O’Mara, 2003). Moreover, the cloth diapers can be kept to be used as hand-me-down diaper for future babies. Environment ImpactThe environmental impact of disposable diapers is one of the important reasons why parents should use cloth diapers. While it could be argued that both types of diapers have the same environmental impact because of the processes required to clean the soiled cloth diapers, disposable diapers have greater environmental impact. Considering the number of disposable diapers used and discarded every day, and the number of diapers that could be used by a single child from birth until toilet-trained, disposable diapers is indeed a significant solid waste problem.Aside from being a burden in landfill sites, m disposable diapers are manufactured with wood pulp, which means that millions of trees are cut for its production. Manufacture of pulp and plastics used in disposable diapers also use toxic chemicals such as dioxins (O’Mara, 2003). Conclusion Parents only want the best for their baby, including the type of diaper to use. The main purpose of a diaper is to keep the baby’s skin from wetness and keep it healthy. The ability of disposable diaper to hold wetness longer is the very reason why parents opt for this type.It seems that parents choose disposable diaper mainly for convenience, but tend to disregard the potential adverse impacts of disposable diapers on their babies. Disposable diaper allows longer contact between the baby’s skin and slightly wet material s may lead to rashes. The well-sealed disposable diaper is also an unhealthy environment as it promotes breeding of bacteria. While the greatest concern for parents is their baby’s health and not the environment, parents should be aware of the adverse impacts disposable diapers have on the environment. References Leverich, L.Cloth Diapers. Donald C. Cooper. O’Mara, P. (2003). Mothering Magazine's Having a Baby, Naturally: The Mothering Magazine Guide to Pregnancy and Childbirth. Simon and Schuster. The New Parents Guide (2012). Diapers, Diapers ; More Diapers: â€Å"Cloth vs. Disposable†. Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. thenewparentsguide. com/diapers. htm. Gentry, Pamela. (2010, January 23). Cloth Diapers Vs Disposable Diapers. Retrieved July, 29 2012, from http://www. livestrong. com/article/75705-cloth-diapers-vs. -disposable- diapers. Lehrburger, C. , J. Mullen and C. V.Jones. 1991. Diapers: Environmental Impacts and Lifecycle Analysis. Philadelph ia, PA: Report to the National Association of Diaper Services (NADS). Stone, Janis and Sternweis, Laura. Consumer Choice — Diaper Dilemma. Iowa State University University Extension. ID. # 1401. 1994. Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://www. rockwellcollins. com/daycare/pdf/pm1401. pdf Scott, Juila. (2011. October 3). Cloth vs. Disposable Diapers: A Cost Comparison. Retrieved July, 16 2012, from http://www. mint. com/blog/consumer-iq/cloth-vs-disposable-diapers- a-cost-comparison-102011.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Oppositions in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay

Oppositions in Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is full of oppositions. The most obvious is the juxtaposition of darkness and light, which are both present from the very beginning, in imagery and in metaphor. The novella is a puzzling mixture of anti-imperialism and racism, civilization and savagery, idealism and nihilism. How can they be reconciled? The final scene, in which Marlow confronts Kurtzs Intended, might be expected to provide resolution. However, it seems, instead, merely to focus the dilemmas in the book, rather than solving them. Throughout the first part of his interview with Kurtzs Intended, Marlow talks about saving her from the darkness: Yes, I know, I said†¦show more content†¦No one can deal with the complete unadorned truth, not even men. Kurtz entered the jungle with illusions of civilizing the natives; later, when he realizes what has actually happened and exclaims, The horror! The horror! he dies (86). The disillusionment kills him. Marlow, also, loses some illusions; however, he manages to create some others for himself, like the idea that he does not need illusions after all. This is how he manages to survive. The question of justice is crucial. During the final scene of his narrative, Marlow reflects on Kurtz, remembering what Kurtz had said: This lot of ivory now is really mine. The Company did not pay for it. I collected it myself at a very great personal risk. I am afraid they will try to claim it as theirs though.... I want no more than justice. ... He wanted no more than justice-no more than justice. (91) Kurtz only means justice for himself; he does not consider justice for the Congolese from whom he took ivory at very great personal risk or for the Company by whom he is employed. However Kurtz meant it, Marlow, in repeating it, assuredly perceives the irony in the statement. Kurtz wanted justice in his possessions, but the jungle took its own kind of justice, by destroying him. Even more ironically, his death even renders irrelevant the human justice Kurtz desired. This begsShow MoreRelated lighthod Binary Oppositions in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness1534 Words   |  7 PagesBinary Oppositions in Heart of Darkness       In Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad used a series of reversed traditional binary oppositions to convey the theme that every man has his own heart of darkness that is simply masked by the superficial light of civilization.    The novella focused primarily on the adventurer Charlie Marlows journey into the African Congo, but dealt with larger themes. 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