Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Lost Symbol Chapter 67-70

CHAPTER 67 West of Embassy Row, all was silent again inside the walled garden with its twelfth-century roses and Shadow House gazebo. On the other side of an entry road, the young man was helping his hunched superior walk across an expansive lawn. He's letting me guide him? Normally, the blind old man refused help, preferring to navigate by memory alone while on the grounds of his sanctuary. Tonight, however, he was apparently in a hurry to get inside and return Warren Bellamy's phone call. â€Å"Thank you,† the old man said as they entered the building that held his private study. â€Å"I can find my way from here.† â€Å"Sir, I would be happy to stay and help–† â€Å"That's all for tonight,† he said, letting go of his helper's arm and shuffling hurriedly off into the darkness. â€Å"Good night.† The young man exited the building and walked back across the great lawn to his modest dwelling on the grounds. By the time he entered his flat, he could feel his curiosity gnawing at him. The old man clearly had been upset by the question posed by Mr. Bellamy . . . and yet the question had seemed strange, almost meaningless. Is there no help for the widow's son? In his wildest imagination, he could not guess what this could mean. Puzzled, he went to his computer and typed in a search for this precise phrase. To his great surprise, page after page of references appeared, all citing this exact question. He read the information in wonderment. It seemed Warren Bellamy was not the first person in history to ask this strange question. These same words had been uttered centuries ago . . . by King Solomon as he mourned a murdered friend. The question was allegedly still spoken today by Masons, who used it as a kind of encoded cry for help. Warren Bellamy, it seemed, was sending a distress call to a fellow Mason. CHAPTER 68 Albrecht Durer? Katherine was trying to put the pieces together as she hurried with Langdon through the basement of the Adams Building. A.D. stands for Albrecht Durer? The famous sixteenth-century German engraver and painter was one of her brother's favorite artists, and Katherine was vaguely familiar with his work. Even so, she could not imagine how Durer would be any help to them in this case. For one thing, he's been dead more than four hundred years. â€Å"Durer is symbolically perfect,† Langdon was saying as they followed the trail of illuminated EXIT signs. â€Å"He was the ultimate Renaissance mind–artist, philosopher, alchemist, and a lifelong student of the Ancient Mysteries. To this day, nobody fully understands the messages hidden in Durer's art.† â€Å"That may be true,† she said. â€Å"But how does `1514 Albrecht Durer' explain how to decipher the pyramid?† They reached a locked door, and Langdon used Bellamy's key card to get through. â€Å"The number 1514,† Langdon said as they hurried up the stairs, â€Å"is pointing us to a very specific piece of Durer's work.† They came into a huge corridor. Langdon glanced around and then pointed left. â€Å"This way.† They moved quickly again. â€Å"Albrecht Durer actually hid the number 1514 in his most mysterious piece of art–Melencolia I–which he completed in the year 1514. It's considered the seminal work of the Northern European Renaissance.† Peter had once shown Katherine Melencolia I in an old book on ancient mysticism, but she didn't recall any hidden number 1514. â€Å"As you may know,† Langdon said, sounding excited, â€Å"Melencolia I depicts mankind's struggle to comprehend the Ancient Mysteries. The symbolism in Melencolia I is so complex it makes Leonardo da Vinci look overt.† Katherine stopped abruptly and looked at Langdon. â€Å"Robert, Melencolia I is here in Washington. It hangs in the National Gallery.† â€Å"Yes,† he said with a smile, â€Å"and something tells me that's not a coincidence. The gallery is closed at this hour, but I know the curator and–â€Å" â€Å"Forget it, Robert, I know what happens when you go to museums.† Katherine headed off into a nearby alcove, where she saw a desk with a computer. Langdon followed, looking unhappy. â€Å"Let's do this the easier way.† It seemed Professor Langdon, the art connoisseur, was having an ethical dilemma about using the Internet when an original was so nearby. Katherine stepped behind the desk and powered up the computer. When the machine finally came to life, she realized she had another problem. â€Å"There's no icon for a browser.† â€Å"It's an internal library network.† Langdon pointed to an icon on the desktop. â€Å"Try that.† Katherine clicked on the icon marked DIGITAL COLLECTIONS. The computer accessed a new screen, and Langdon pointed again. Katherine clicked on his choice of icon: FINE PRINTS COLLECTION. The screen refreshed. FINE PRINTS: SEARCH. â€Å"Type in `Albrecht Durer.' â€Å" Katherine entered the name and then clicked the search key. Within seconds, the screen began displaying a series of thumbnail images. All of the images looked to be similar in style–intricate black-and-white engravings. Durer had apparently done dozens of similar engravings. Katherine scanned the alphabetical list of his artwork. Adam and Eve Betrayal of Christ Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Great Passion Last Supper Seeing all the biblical titles, Katherine recalled that Durer practiced something called Mystic Christianity–a fusion of early Christianity, alchemy, astrology, and science. Science . . . The image of her lab in flames rushed through her mind. She could barely process the long-term ramifications, but for the moment, her thoughts turned to her assistant, Trish. I hope she made it out. Langdon was saying something about Durer's version of the Last Supper, but Katherine was barely listening. She had just seen the link for Melencolia I. She clicked the mouse, and the page refreshed with general information. Melencolia I, 1514 Albrecht Durer (engraving on laid paper) Rosenwald Collection National Gallery of Art Washington, D.C. When she scrolled down, a high-res digital image of Durer's masterpiece appeared in all its glory. Katherine stared in bewilderment, having forgotten just how strange it was. Langdon gave an understanding chuckle. â€Å"As I said, it's cryptic.† Melencolia I consisted of a brooding figure with giant wings, seated in front of a stone building, surrounded by the most disparate and bizarre collection of objects imaginable–measuring scales, an emaciated dog, carpenter's tools, an hourglass, various geometric solids, a hanging bell, a putto, a blade, a ladder. Katherine vaguely recalled her brother telling her that the winged figure was a representation of â€Å"human genius†Ã¢â‚¬â€œa great thinker with chin in hand, looking depressed, still unable to achieve enlightenment. The genius is surrounded with all of the symbols of his human intellect–objects of science, math, philosophy, nature, geometry, even carpentry–and yet is still unable to climb the ladder to true enlightenment. Even the human genius has difficulty comprehending the Ancient Mysteries. â€Å"Symbolically,† Langdon said, â€Å"this represents mankind's failed attempt to transform human intellect into godlike power. In alchemical terms, it represents our inability to turn lead into gold.† â€Å"Not a particularly encouraging message,† Katherine agreed. â€Å"So how does it help us?† She did not see the hidden number 1514 that Langdon was talking about. â€Å"Order from chaos,† Langdon said, flashing a lopsided grin. â€Å"Just as your brother promised.† He reached in his pocket and pulled out the grid of letters he had written earlier from the Masonic cipher. â€Å"Right now, this grid is meaningless.† He spread the paper out on the desk. Katherine eyed the grid. Definitely meaningless. â€Å"But Durer will transform it.† â€Å"And how might he do that?† â€Å"Linguistic alchemy.† Langdon motioned to the computer screen. â€Å"Look carefully. Hidden in this masterpiece is something that will make sense of our sixteen letters.† He waited. â€Å"Do you see it yet? Look for the number 1514.† Katherine was in no mood to play classroom. â€Å"Robert, I see nothing–an orb, a ladder, a knife, a polyhedron, a scale? I give up.† â€Å"Look! There in the background. Carved into that building behind the angel? Beneath the bell? Durer engraved a square that is full of numbers.† Katherine now saw the square that contained numbers, among them 1514. â€Å"Katherine, that square is the key to deciphering the pyramid!† She shot him a surprised look. â€Å"That's not just any square,† Langdon said, grinning. â€Å"That, Ms. Solomon, is a magic square.† CHAPTER 69 Where the hell are they taking me? Bellamy was still blindfolded in the back of an SUV. After a short stop somewhere close to the Library of Congress, the vehicle had continued on . . . but only for a minute. Now the SUV had stopped again, having again traveled only about a block. Bellamy heard muffled voices talking. â€Å"Sorry . . . impossible . . .† an authoritative voice was saying. † . . . closed at this hour . . .† The man driving the SUV replied with equal authority. â€Å"CIA investigation . . . national security . . .† Apparently the exchange of words and IDs was persuasive, because the tone shifted immediately. â€Å"Yes, of course . . . service entrance . . .† There was the loud grinding of what sounded like a garage door, and as it opened, the voice added, â€Å"Shall I accompany you? Once you're inside, you won't be able to get through–â€Å" â€Å"No. We have access already.† If the guard was surprised, it was too late. The SUV was moving again. It advanced about fifty yards and then came to a stop. The heavy door rumbled closed again behind them. Silence. Bellamy realized he was trembling. With a bang, the SUV's rear hatch flew open. Bellamy felt a sharp pain in his shoulders as someone dragged him out by his arms, then lifted him to his feet. Without a word, a powerful force led him across a wide expanse of pavement. There was a strange, earthy smell here that he could not place. There were footsteps of someone else walking with them, but whoever it was had yet to speak. They stopped at a door, and Bellamy heard an electronic ping. The door clicked open. Bellamy was manhandled through several corridors and could not help but notice that the air was warmer and more humid. An indoor pool, maybe? No. The smell in the air was not chlorine . . . it was far more earthy and primal. Where the hell are we?! Bellamy knew he could not be more than a block or two from the Capitol Building. Again they stopped, and again he heard the electronic beep of a security door. This one slid open with a hiss. As they pushed him through, the smell that hit him was unmistakable. Bellamy now realized where they were. My God! He came here often, although never through the service entrance. This magnificent glass building was only three hundred yards from the Capitol Building and was technically part of the Capitol Complex. I run this place! Bellamy now realized it was his own key fob that was giving them access. Powerful arms pushed him through the doorway, leading him down a familiar, winding walkway. The heavy, damp warmth of this place usually felt comforting to him. Tonight, he was sweating. What are we doing here?! Bellamy was halted suddenly and seated on a bench. The man with the muscles unhooked his handcuffs only long enough to reaffix them to the bench behind his back. â€Å"What do you want from me?† Bellamy demanded, heart pounding wildly. The only response he received was the sound of boots walking off and the glass door sliding shut. Then silence. Dead silence. They're just going to leave me here? Bellamy was sweating more heavily now as he struggled to release his hands. I can't even take off my blindfold? â€Å"Help!† he shouted. â€Å"Anybody!† Even as he called out in panic, Bellamy knew nobody was going to hear him. This massive glass room–known as the Jungle–was entirely airtight when the doors were closed. They left me in the Jungle, he thought. Nobody will find me until morning. Then he heard it. The sound was barely audible, but it terrified Bellamy like no sound he had ever heard in his life. Something breathing. Very close. He was not alone on the bench. The sudden hiss of a sulfur match sizzled so close to his face that he could feel the heat. Bellamy recoiled, instinctively yanking hard at his chains. Then, without warning, a hand was on his face, removing his blindfold. The flame before him reflected in the black eyes of Inoue Sato as she pressed the match against the cigarette dangling from her lips, only inches away from Bellamy's face. She glared at him in the moonlight that filtered down through the glass ceiling. She looked pleased to see his fear. â€Å"So, Mr. Bellamy,† Sato said, shaking out the match. â€Å"Where shall we begin?† CHAPTER 70 A magic square. Katherine nodded as she eyed the numbered square in Durer's engraving. Most people would have thought Langdon had lost his mind, but Katherine had quickly realized he was right. The term magic square referred not to something mystical but to something mathematical–it was the name given to a grid of consecutive numbers arranged in such a way that all the rows, columns, and diagonals added up to the same thing. Created some four thousand years ago by mathematicians in Egypt and India, magic squares were still believed by some to hold magical powers. Katherine had read that even nowadays devout Indians drew special three-by-three magic squares called the Kubera Kolam on their pooja altars. Primarily, though, modern man had relegated magic squares to the category of â€Å"recreational mathematics,† some people still deriving pleasure from the quest to discover new â€Å"magical† configurations. Sudoku for geniuses. Katherine quickly analyzed Durer's square, adding up the numbers in several rows and columns. â€Å"Thirty-four,† she said. â€Å"Every direction adds up to thirty-four.† â€Å"Exactly,† Langdon said. â€Å"But did you know that this magic square is famous because Durer accomplished the seemingly impossible?† He quickly showed Katherine that in addition to making the rows, columns, and diagonals add up to thirty-four, Durer had also found a way to make the four quadrants, the four center squares, and even the four corner squares add up to that number. â€Å"Most amazing, though, was Durer's ability to position the numbers 15 and 14 together in the bottom row as an indication of the year in which he accomplished this incredible feat!† Katherine scanned the numbers, amazed by all the combinations. Langdon's tone grew more excited now. â€Å"Extraordinarily, Melencolia I represents the very first time in history that a magic square appeared in European art. Some historians believe this was Durer's encoded way of indicating that the Ancient Mysteries had traveled outside the Egyptian Mystery Schools and were now held by the European secret societies.† Langdon paused. â€Å"Which brings us back to . . . this.† He motioned to the slip of paper bearing the grid of letters from the stone pyramid. â€Å"I assume the layout looks familiar now?† Langdon asked. â€Å"Four-by-four square.† Langdon picked up the pencil and carefully transcribed Durer's numbered magic square onto the slip of paper, directly beside the lettered square. Katherine was now seeing just how easy this was going to be. He stood poised, pencil in hand, and yet . . . strangely, after all this enthusiasm, he seemed to hesitate. â€Å"Robert?† He turned to her, his expression one of trepidation. â€Å"Are you sure we want to do this? Peter expressly–â€Å" â€Å"Robert, if you don't want to decipher this engraving, then I will.† She held out her hand for the pencil. Langdon could tell there would be no deterring her and so he acquiesced, turning his attention back to the pyramid. Carefully, he superimposed the magic square over the pyramid's grid of letters and assigned each letter a number. Then he created a new grid, placing the Masonic cipher's letters in the new order as defined by the sequence in Durer's magic square. When Langdon was finished, they both examined the result. Katherine immediately felt confused. â€Å"It's still gibberish.† Langdon remained silent a long moment. â€Å"Actually, Katherine, it's not gibberish.† His eyes brightened again with the thrill of discovery. â€Å"It's . . . Latin.† In a long, dark corridor, an old blind man shuffled as quickly as he could toward his office. When he finally arrived, he collapsed in his desk chair, his old bones grateful for the reprieve. His answering machine was beeping. He pressed the button and listened. â€Å"It's Warren Bellamy,† said the hushed whisper of his friend and Masonic brother. â€Å"I'm afraid I have alarming news . . .† Katherine Solomon's eyes shot back to the grid of letters, reexamining the text. Sure enough, a Latin word now materialized before her eyes. Jeova. Katherine had not studied Latin, but this word was familiar from her reading of ancient Hebrew texts. Jeova. Jehovah. As her eyes continued to trace downward, reading the grid like a book, she was surprised to realize she could read the entire text of the pyramid. Jeova Sanctus Unus. She knew its meaning at once. This phrase was ubiquitous in modern translations of Hebrew scripture. In the Torah, the God of the Hebrews was known by many names–Jeova, Jehovah, Jeshua, Yahweh, the Source, the Elohim–but many Roman translations had consolidated the confusing nomenclature into a single Latin phrase: Jeova Sanctus Unus. â€Å"One true God?† she whispered to herself. The phrase certainly did not seem like something that would help them find her brother. â€Å"That's this pyramid's secret message? One true God? I thought this was a map.† Langdon looked equally perplexed, the excitement in his eyes evaporating. â€Å"This decryption obviously is correct, but . . .† â€Å"The man who has my brother wants to know a location.† She tucked her hair behind her ear. â€Å"This is not going to make him very happy.† â€Å"Katherine,† Langdon said, heaving a sigh. â€Å"I've been afraid of this. All night, I've had a feeling we're treating as reality a collection of myths and allegories. Maybe this inscription is pointing to a metaphorical location–telling us that the true potential of man can be accessed only through the one true God.† â€Å"But that makes no sense!† Katherine replied, her jaw now clenched in frustration. â€Å"My family protected this pyramid for generations! One true God? That's the secret? And the CIA considers this an issue of national security? Either they're lying or we're missing something!† Langdon shrugged in accord. Just then, his phone began to ring. In a cluttered office lined with old books, the old man hunched over his desk, clutching a phone receiver in his arthritic hand. The line rang and rang. At last, a tentative voice answered. â€Å"Hello?† The voice was deep but uncertain. The old man whispered, â€Å"I was told you require sanctuary.† The man on the line seemed startled. â€Å"Who is this? Did Warren Bell–† â€Å"No names, please,† the old man said. â€Å"Tell me, have you successfully protected the map that was entrusted to you?† A startled pause. â€Å"Yes . . . but I don't think it matters. It doesn't say much. If it is a map, it seems to be more metaphorical than–â€Å" â€Å"No, the map is quite real, I assure you. And it points to a very real location. You must keep it safe. I cannot impress upon you enough how important this is. You are being pursued, but if you can travel unseen to my location, I will provide sanctuary . . . and answers.† The man hesitated, apparently uncertain. â€Å"My friend,† the old man began, choosing his words carefully. â€Å"There is a refuge in Rome, north of the Tiber, which contains ten stones from Mount Sinai, one from heaven itself, and one with the visage of Luke's dark father. Do you know my location?† There was a long pause on the line, and then the man replied, â€Å"Yes, I do.† The old man smiled. I thought you might, Professor. â€Å"Come at once. Make sure you're not followed.†

Friday, August 30, 2019

Oedipus Trilogy Essay

It was Sophocles who wrote the Oedipus Trilogy. Although Oedipus Rex has always been a common oral story to the Greeks, Sophocles added different dimensions in his rendition of the tragic story of Oedipus. Antigone was the epilogue of the trilogy and the last part of the story but it was the first play to be produced. Oedipus the King was the beginning of the trilogy, where the fate of Oedipus was prophesied, and the rise and fall of Oedipus was chronicled. And Oedipus at Colonus is the middle of the trilogy where Oedipus dies and his sons murder each other thus continuing the eventuality of the prophecy. In Antigone, the final pieces of the tragedy unraveled, thus completing the prophecy of the oracle to Oedipus. In Antigone, the play focuses more on the battle between opposing primary views and concerns. Actually, it was more on opposing pride. Antigone was determined to give his brother an honorable burial despite the fact that the current king blatantly forbids it. She maintains that love is above law and hegemony. Creon, on the other hand, although Polynices is his nephew, forbids the burial on the grounds that it is the law to refuse honorable funerals to traitors. Although the central characters have opposing views, their attributes are very much similar to each other. Both are blinded by their own pride in their decisions. Antigone, when confronted by Creon, refuses to back down despite the fact that Creon threatened her that her sister will be penalized together with her. Antigone, sees her action as a form of â€Å"martydom†. In a way she sees glory in what she had done by â€Å"sacrificing† herself for the sake of his brother, which somewhat preposterous because of the fact that his brother is already dead. Creon, likewise, refuses to change his decision despite his son’s threat of suicide if he condemns Antigone. Although he perceives that his son’s words were not empty threats, he still refused to change his decision. This is because he distinguishes his action as strength of leadership. He mistakes pride for decisive command. Antigone represents moral ascendancy over political law. Creon, on the other hand, symbolizes the primacy of the rule of law above all else. The play attempts to stir the audience to struggle on which side should prevail. Athens, during the time of Sophocles was in its golden age. Democracy has been the highest point of the era. However, there are certain rules of law that exist to govern the democratic state. The play seeks to arouse questions from among the audience. Whether certain personal morals and filial duty should take over the rule of law when the situation calls for it. Or whether the rule of law should always prevail to maintain order in the society. However, Sophocles drives home the point that there are no extreme grounds. Moral ascendancy and the rule of law are invariably intertwined and should be taken into consideration in making a decision. In the play it was the comical messenger that best manifested the careful weighing of consequences of his actions when he pondered to and fro on what to tell Creon. It was him that provided a middle ground. His action was the very reflection of the thoughts of the audience. Towards the end of the play, both Creon and Antigone became so blind of their pride in their decision that they were no longer fighting for what they believe is right. Antigone sees her suicide as a form of sacrilegious immolation as if she was giving herself up for the good of her brother. Likewise, Creon perceives his decision to condemn Antigone as strength of leadership. He thinks that if he pardons Antigone, then he had let Antigone â€Å"win†, that Antigone will emerge to be â€Å"the man† in the battle. Creon’s and Antigone’s greatest folly is their tendency to oversimplify the situation. Antigone reduced the circumstance to moral ascendancy and Creon to the rule of law. Their pride made them blind that their decision will lead to conflict and deliberation. Like all characters of the play, Oedipus’ tragic flaw is his pride. In Oedipus the King, the rise and fall of Oedipus was accounted to his pride. His killing of his father was brought about by his pride, his desire to seek the truth of his identity was driven by pride, his edict of severe punishment to the murderer of Laius was brought about by pride and even is in his lowest moment when he eventually discovered the truth he still clung to the last pieces of his trappings as king. However, there is a great difference in Oedipus’ pride and that of Creon’s and Antigone’s. Antigone claims that it was for her love of her brother that she disobeyed Creon but in reality she puts herself in a pedestal with greater morals than Creon could understand. She masked her pride with proclamations of sacrifice and martyrdom for filial love. Creon, on the other hand, asserts that his actions are but mere implementation of law. However, in truth, Creon revels at the power that he holds upon the kingdom. This is evident even in the play Oedipus the King when Creon demonstrated his newfound power by curtly cutting off Oedipus while he was still mourning his fate. Oedipus pride, however, was disguised as his earnestness. This was exposed when he declared that he would seek all means to end the plague in his nation. He was so earnest in his demonstrations to the people of his intentions to save his kingdom that he himself cemented his doom. Furthermore, in seeking the murderer of Laius, in his earnestness to punish the criminal, he unknowingly condemned himself. More over, when the truth of his identity was slowly untangling, he was so earnest in wanting to discover the whole truth that he made a way for his ruination. In truth, Oedipus was earnest because he wanted to set himself apart from the rest. He wanted to be a great leader in his nation. His exaggerated demonstrations of his intentions to save his nation were masked pride. He clearly wanted to be the â€Å"savior† of his kingdom. He celebrates at the power that he holds upon the people. This is obvious that he dares insult the oracle when he came to his presence. Moreover, being royals, Jocasta and Oedipus had the tendency to invalidate the fate the gods have in store for them. They have countless times declared that the oracle is false. This is clearly a sign of their pride that they could not fathom that there are any other being that is above them. At the end of the play, Oedipus took responsibility of his actions. But even in his broken state he was still proud. It was him who commanded Creon to bury Jocasta as he sees fit and to banish him from his nation. Although he no longer has any real power, he still managed to hold on to his last bits of power as a former king. Oedipus the King ended with Oedipus as a broken man banished from his kingdom and disgraced from the society. In Oedipus at Colonus, we find just that, a broken man. However, his brokenness should not be interpreted as newfound humility. Contrariwise, his decent into brokenness left him embittered. In the play, he again questions his fate. He even questions his sons’ decision in remaining adamant in his exile. The initial scene of the play rightly sets the tone for the story. Antigone was describing their trespass on holy ground that must be corrected with prayers and libation. It is ironing that Oedipus and Antigone, with full knowledge of the wrongness of their action still proceed to commit the deed then proceed to rectify the iniquitous. This is the theme all throughout the play, the characters all seemingly commit an action that they are fully aware that is not correct but still proceed to do so nonetheless. Again all of which is because of pride. When Creon abducts Oedipus’ daughters, Theseus proceeds to rescue them. He pretends that he did so because of honor and duty. However, in reality, Theseus’ primary objective is to save his own kingdom. In this play, most of the characters have hidden agenda. In the first two plays that Sophocles wrote, the characters were forthright with their motives. Antigone and Creon were so brash and obvious in their thoughts and beliefs in Antigone. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus lack of blunt motives led to his destruction. But in the third installment, the characters were more masked in their intentions. Even Oedipus, when he refused to go back to his city, he maintained that it was on the basis of his newfound holiness but in truth it was his pride that kept him from coming back. Why would come back to a city that shunned him? Or to the people that eschewed themselves from him? Moreover, in a confrontation with Polynices, he begins to questions his sons actions on why they were apathetic of his exile. He failed to realize that it was him who commanded Creon to exile him in the first place. Just as he was physically blind, he was also blind from the truth. Even in his deprivation he still was not able to fully see the extent of his mistakes and his pride. In the end, Oedipus’ death was inconsequential. For a character such as him, it is but ironic that his death was portrayed as merely peripheral with only Theseus as witness. Even the lamentations of Ismene and Antigone were not impassionate enough. Sophocles merely pointed out that no matter how great Oedipus was in his former glory, like everyone else, his end is just merely death – a fate that no great man can escape from.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Technical Communication Sample Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Technical Communication Sample - Essay Example iting under scrutiny here is a White Paper, ‘Building a World Class Online Storage Infrastructure’ (July 13, 2000) from Driveway Corporation, pioneers in the field of online file storage service. The document details how Driveway Corporation developed an efficient 24X7 online storage service. There are certain essential features that are usually present in technical writing. Some of them are title page, disclaimer, abstract, acknowledgement, contents page, introduction, main sections and sub-sections, conclusions, references, and appendices. Now, a look into the Driveway Corporation White Paper proves that it contains many of these essential features that make it a perfect example of technical writing. It starts with a title page, followed by a disclaimer page. As in a technical writing, there is a fully developed table of contents and an executive summary. Thereafter, there are various subsections and finally a conclusion. Evidently, the White Paper epitomizes the conce pt of technical communication. There are some other features too that keep it different from the ordinary academic writing. This technical communication gives no chance for entertainment. In other words, the style of writing is simple, concise and ‘to the fact’. The second point is the total absence of emotive language in this piece of work. As the intention is only to convey information, the language used is as highly objective as possible. Yet another feature is that this work tries to be as concise as possible by avoiding sentences with so many clauses which are confusing to read. The last feature to be mentioned is the clarity presented throughout the work. In technical writing, the presentation should not be ambiguous. The Driveway Corporation White Paper intends to explain the various factors that made the company start its online storage service. It details how its online storage infrastructure works, its design goals, storage capacity, and security. It also explains how the storage

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

International Marketing for Travel and Tourism The 32nd Atlanta Jazz Essay

International Marketing for Travel and Tourism The 32nd Atlanta Jazz Festival - Essay Example The three dominant forces affecting Atlanta's history and development have been transportation, race relations, and the "Atlanta spirit." At each stage in the city's development, these three elements have come into play. Transportation innovations and their connections to Atlanta helped establish the city as a state and regional center of commerce and finance. And the Atlanta spirit-part civic booster program, part vision, with a healthy dose of business interests and priorities-has provided the city with an ever-changing set of goals and definitions of what Atlanta is and what it can become. In the recent past, the city of Atlanta has gained familiarity and has transformed from a commercial city into a city with international influence and tourist attraction. In a very little span of 6 years i.e. from 2000 - 2006, the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta increased by almost 20.5%. This has made Atlanta the fastest growing metropolitan city of the United States. Transportation has always been an important factor in the growth of the city of Atlanta and also its development, had a significant impact on the city in the 1960s and 1970s. Atlanta's connections to three interstate highways continued during this period to direct and facilitate suburban growth and anchored the regional trucking industry to the city. Air travel also became increasingly important as Atlanta Municipal Airport emerged as one of the busiest air hubs in the nation. Office buildings and retail establishments followed this population growth and movement to the suburbs, especially on the north side of the city. In the transportation sector airplanes and automobiles continued to have the biggest impact on the metropolitan region. Atlanta's dramatic population growth in the last few decades has been matched by equally impressive economic growth. The city is, by most measures, the business capital of the Southeast. Atlanta's ties to transportation include Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (one of the top two busiest airports in the world), three interstate highways that intersect in Atlanta, and a nexus of freight and passenger rail lines. All of these transportation connections bring commerce, products, and people to the Atlanta area and provide employment, either directly or indirectly, to many of the region's citizens. Since the 1970s the hospitality, tourism, and convention industry has been another key element of Atlanta's economy, spurring the construction of new hotels, convention spaces, and related industries. From 1965 to 1975, for example, the number of hotel rooms in the downtown area alone increased from 4,000 to 14,000 and by 1972 Atlanta ranked third among cities in terms of convention business. Jazz Festival - Introduction: Renowned as the largest free jazz festival in the country, the Atlanta Jazz Festival is traditionally a Memorial Day Weekend celebration of a true American art form - Jazz. This year marks the 28th anniversary of the Festival. The finale of the event will take place in Piedmont Park May 28th - 30th. The Atlanta Jazz Fe

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Jazz Fusion Musicians Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Jazz Fusion Musicians - Term Paper Example or Kenny G brand by use of instrumentals. Therefore, the term jazz became distorted to accommodate rock and pop groups back in the 1960s by adding horns for flavoring (Sweat and Tears, Blood and Chicago). By old definition, fusion is, therefore, a mixture of improvisations made on Jazz combined with the rhythms, energy and timbers of rock music. Jazz fusion began to take hold in the wake of the Golden Era of rock in around the late 1960s. The essay discusses; Mile Davis, John Abercombie, Don Alias, Jeff Beck, Jack Bruce and Larry Carlton contributions to jazz fusion in their life time. A number of questions commonly get asked concerning the founder of jazz fusion. In accordance to some music analysts, some say fusion might have started with the guitarist, Larry Coryell. Speculations presume that Larry Coryell brought the rock oriented tune. In addition, he also brought attack raw, edgy tones in contrast to the smooth, rounded tones which guitarist employed in many jazz sessions at th at era. In addition, other analysts noted that blues and rock sensibilities which Jack DeJohnette, drummer, and Keith Jarrett, pianist, brought to the given Charles Lloyd Quartet also became wildly popular to rock audiences in 1967, despite, using acoustic instruments. Furthermore, from England, The Trinity and jazz organist Brian Auger also developed rock in the late 1960s through borrowing some pop influences plus clothing styles. The founders could even be traced way back to 1959 to the likes of Ray Charles. He pioneered the use of the given Wurlitzer electric piano in singing some of his blues, gospel and jazz hits. The same Wurlitzer electric piano became used later by Joe Zawinul and contributed in making a given gospel song a hit in 1966. In relation to some musical analysts, they claim that the first jazz and rock combination might have been truly a mixture of Dixieland Jazz plus the 50s rock. Therefore, regarding the founder of jazz fusion music, there is no impressive cons ensus to date on whom might have been the founder of the spectacular Jazz fusion music. Even if quite a lot of arguments exist on the true founder of the jazz fusion music, but musicians behind making it popular could be identified. These musicians played a prominent role in popularizing the jazz music and making it get a lot of audiences as years advanced. A good example of such a musician that contributed immensely to its popularity includes Miles Davis (Miles & Quincy 34). Miles Davis was an ever curious person that wished to experiment with any music. He managed to fuse rock and rhythm and blues (R&B) currents existing in the late 1960’s and created hits. Miles Davis managed to popularize jazz fusion to greater heights at that time thereby increasing the number of fans listening jazz fusion genre. Jazz itself became fused in the ‘20s, together with rock and even soul music around that time. In addition, other musicians that contributed to its popularity became the B eatles groups. From 1964, as the Beatles group invaded and rocked their music on air and other areas, they too managed to spread the jazz fusion music with them through the music they played. As the jazz scene continuously became a battle between angry avant-garde and hard boppers, many bored and alienated musicians looked to rock, which at that time had begun to develop into multifaceted imaginative art form (Miles & Quincy 36). Moreover, the introduction of the given electronic keyboards like the Wurlitzer plus the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Monolingual and bilingual approach in language classrooms Essay

Monolingual and bilingual approach in language classrooms - Essay Example As our world has become smaller, more countries have recognized the importance of English becoming an international language. They have seen the importance of upgrading their language teaching skills. Government policies across the world such as ‘Teaching English through English’ (TETE) had begun in Korea (Nunan, 2003; Kang, 2008). As learning English has become more popular in many countries, teachers have asked whether it is better to teach English through a monolingual approach or a bilingual approach. "Monolingual approach is teaching English by only using English; and the bilingual approach is teach the target language which in this case is English (L2) using both the mother tongue (L2) and the target language.(L2)" (Atkinson, 1993; Edstrome, 2006). Learning English by using the mother tongue has been considered a less efficient method in some countries. Parents and governments have the tendency to favour only an English language teaching syllabus but there are teac hing professionals who advocate that teaching using only L2 may not be the most efficient and profitable way of teaching. The importance lies in deciding what is the best teaching method; and whether or not L1 should be used in teaching. The teaching approach depends on the teachers and the parents. All circumstances need to be taken under consideration to determine what is best for learners (Atkinson, 1993).A brief historical background of both approaches will be presented including the pros and the cons of L1 bilingual approach and the L2 approach.... A brief historical background of both approaches will be presented including the pros and the cons of L1 bilingual approach and the L2 approach. Emphasis will be made showing that L1 helps target language learning. To conclude a format will be introduced showing strategies of when and how to use students' native language and strategies how to limit the use of L1 use in order to maximize the use of L2. 2. Historical view of L1 and L2 use in language classroom When teaching L2 (English)as a second language began several hundred years ago, using the target language was well accepted (Auerbach, 1993). This phenomenon was due to emphasizing writing competence rather than speaking competence. From the 19th century, there was a reversed phenomenon and speaking became more important that writing. The monolingual approach took precedence in language learning. (Baron, 1990; Crawford, 1991; Auerbach, 1993).Each wave of immigration considered speaking English part of the process of assimilation. The U.S government attempted to Americanize immigrants considering speaking good English as patriotic (Baron, 1990, p. 155) The earlier form of teaching in colonial times stressed monolingual teaching in order homogenize the language (Phillipson, 1992; Hawks, 2001). It was possibly a major influence that the L1 varied depending on the immigrants' nationality. Using both languages was seen as non efficient and abnormal way of teaching the language so that L2 was their only tool to teach the target language (Pennycook, 1994). The Makere report, presented at Makere University in Uganda at a conference in 1961, gives an excellent example in how much the monolingual approach was favoured. There are five main tenets: 1. English is best taught in a monolingual

Sunday, August 25, 2019

World poverty Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

World poverty - Article Example The annual income required to a family to survive according to federal governments is the most general definition of poverty, which is established through the statistical evaluation. Michael Darby (1997:4) states that the actual definition of poverty is political, whose purpose is to level the growth related to programs. According to US census, keeping in view the inflation the poverty line regarding family of four in 2000 was $17,050 income. However, this definition of poverty has many issues according to several scholars of poverty such as; treatment of taxes, special work associated expenditures, regional dissimilarities in the price of living, cash income (Blank 1997; Quigley, 2003). Poverty annihilation due to political, ethical and economic urgency is necessary. The statement was given, in Copenhagen, fifteen years ago at the World Summit for Social Development by the global leaders. For growth, since then poverty annihilation has become the prime target, and it is being considered a common destructive element for the whole of humanity. To overcome poverty has become a global goal and it must be achieved until 2015. The goal, which was set fifteen years ago, could not obtain still. Still, poverty lingering everywhere except East Asia and China and at some level India, which have achieved incredulous success. According to the Social Summit 1995, the definition of poverty comprised of lack of participation, deprivation, and social exclusion and today the definition has extended in several other dimensions, and the goal is still very far. In sub-Saharan Africa, the rate of poverty is inflexibly and ineptly high. Moreover, in South Asia, poverty reduction is very low despite a sustainable development. To minimize and eradicate poverty economic growth seems a very significant factor; however, the growth at the same time in other directions is also mandatory such as; education,

Saturday, August 24, 2019

THE FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

THE FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT - Essay Example In 1977, congress endorsed the FCPA in response to the revealed widespread bribery where company managements resorted to falsification of company records and bribery. Through the FCPA act, the congress aimed at protecting the image of American democracy abroad while reinforcing the integrity US companies. In addition, the enactment of FCPA was aimed halting corrupt practice while restoring public confidence. The main intention of the enactment was to illegalize payments completed to foreign government officials by some persons and entities in quest of attaining or sustaining business (Koehler, 2013, p. 6). Two provisions used to attain this goal focus on anti-bribery and accounting. Through the anti-bribery provision, FCPA prohibits bribery of foreign public officials despite their position or rank. Since FCPA does not cover private-to-private bribery, a foreign public official serving in the capacity of judicial or legislative position, individuals practicing public roles on foreign land, , or an official serving in public firms. The Act also prohibits firms against issuing valuable things like money, offers, payments, promises to give, or gifts (Harris, 2011). Companies that participate in such payments are subject to FCPA liability as well as violations of anti-bribery provisions that include offers and promises, and actual gifts and payments. In addition, firms are prohibited from using intermediaries like consultants, businesses associates, and partners among others, to ‘knowingly’ make payments or portions prohibited by FCPA. For local and international companies listed in the US SEC, FCPA requires meeting bookkeeping provisions. The aim is to enhance the FCPA anti-bribery provisions to oversee that companies not only make but also maintain accurate records and books reasonably representing the company’s transactions (Cragg, 2005). Additionally, the

Friday, August 23, 2019

Front end of Sky West Inc case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Front end of Sky West Inc - Case Study Example Sky West Inc. was named the regional company of the year since 2006 depicting customer satisfaction. However, Sky West Inc. faces a challenge of increased and fluctuating fuel costs and it is the aim of this report of the alternatives strategies for implementation by management to overcome the challenge and recommend the best alternative. The first alternative available for Sky West Inc. is to improve the fleet of aircrafts to have better technology, be bigger, and efficient in flying both short and long distant locations. Improving the fleet will provide Sky West Inc. the chance to increase destinations and augment the ability of the company to compete with established airlines. The current fleet requires large maintenance costs and affects the ability of the company to make large contracts with major airline companies to fly for long distances. Pros: several benefits will accrue from the implementation of the strategy including low fuel consumption from the increased efficiency in fuel consumption by the more technologically advanced aircrafts. Another benefit from the alternative is the augmented efficiency of operations from the improved fleet allowing for a reduction in maintenance costs and decreased breakdowns reducing operation costs for the company. Time-saving on maintenance and repairs will allow Sky West Inc. access better returns from the increased times of flying with the new flight compared to old fleet that have to be frequently grounded for maintenance and repairs. Improving the fleet will also put Sky West Inc. at a better position of competing with international aviation companies for greater market share and propel it beyond regional aviation service provision. Cons: the main disadvantage with the alternative is the high cost of implementation. The high costs are as a result of the need to phase out old fleet resulting in losses owing to sale at lower price or minimal use reducing return on assets ratio.

Native American Religious Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Native American Religious Studies - Essay Example His studies on this group of people covered the language of Western Apaches, patterns of silence in social interaction, witchcraft beliefs, and ceremonial symbolism, and others. The idea for Wisdom Sits in Places originated from a conducted study of Apache places; how the Apache refer to their land, the place-names; the stories behind the names of each place, and how these place-names are being used in everyday conversations by Apache men and women. The publication is a stunning informative study of the use of landscape and language in the social life of the Western Apaches. And one would find it wonderful how language influence and shape the way a person thinks, and how wisdom can sit in places, and that a race’s language is intimately linked to the land where they sprang. The book is divided into four sections: Quoting the Ancestors, Stalking with Stories, Speaking with Names, and Wisdom Sits in Places. Each chapter revolves around the design that landscape and language serve distinct purpose in the life of Western Apaches. Chapter 4 is a look on the path of wisdom in the Western Apache society. In this, Basso, with the guidance of an Apache friend named Dudley Patterson, explained that there are two conditions of the mind: "steadiness of mind" (bIni gonldzil), and "resilience of mind" (bIni gontliz). These two conditions will in turn lead the person to another mental condition: which he called â€Å"smoothness of mind† (bIni godilkooh), considered being a more desirable mental condition. These three conditions, according to his study, are not inborn; therefore, an individual needs to work on his mind in order to gain wisdom. Working on one’s mind could be through being observant on different places, learn their place-names, and then reflect on traditional narratives that give emphasis on the importance and intrinsic worth of wisdom. The idea of

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Determination Of The Relative Composition Of a Mixture Solution Essay Example for Free

Determination Of The Relative Composition Of a Mixture Solution Essay To determine the relative composition of a mixture solution containing sodium ethane-1, 2-dioate and ethane-1, 2-dioic acid. INTRODUCTION Potassium permanganate KMn is a strong oxidizing agent which reacts with reducing agent ethanedioate ion to give and C + 2 Mn+ 16 2+8+10 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reacts with acid to give water . the reaction is shown with the following equation + To investigate the relative composition of the mixture solution, it has to be titrated with NaOH first with phenolphthalein as indicator and then with acidify KMn as Mn react with both compound. KMnhas to be acidified first, otherwise brown ppt of Mn is formed instead of 2 H2O + MnO4- + 3 e- à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Mn+ 4 In addition to that, the reaction solution has to be warmed to about 70 as the reaction rate is very slow. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS beaker measuring cylinder. Safety spectacles beaker conical flask pipette ,25 burette ,50, and stand wash bottle white file electrical heater sulphuric acid Potassium permanganate KMn solution Mixture solution PROCEDURE 1. 25.00of the mixture solution was transferred into a 250conical flask using a pipette rinsed by distilled water and the mixture solution 2. The burette rinsed by distilled water and NaOH is filled with NaOH 3. Titrate the mixture solution with 0.1M NaOH solotuion using phenolphthalein as indicactor 4. Until the solution turns pink, result is recorded in table 1 5. About 25.00of 1M sulphuric acid (using measuring cylinder) is added to the conical flask . 6. The mixture is then heated by electrical heater to at least 70. 7. The heated mixture is then titrated with 0.02M Potassium permanganate KMn until a permanent pink colour is observed 8. Record the result in Table2 RESULT Table 1 Titration result of mixture solution against NaOH Trial 1 2 3 Final burette reading 15.4 27.3 39.0 12.8 Initial burette Reading 3.1 15.4 27.3 1.0 Volume of NaOH Added 12.3 11.9 11.7 11.8 Mean Volume of NaOH added ( 11.7+11.8+11.9) /3 =11.8 Table 2 Titration result of mixture solution against KMn Trial 1 2 3 Final burette reading 35.0 26.4 45.5 40.6 Initial burette Reading 16.3 7.1 26.4 21.4 Volume of NaOH Added 18.7 19.3 19.1 19.2 Mean Volume of NaOH added ( 19.3+19.1+19.2) /3 =19.2 CALCUALTION Equation involved in the reaction between NaOH and mixture solution: + +Na(aq) Mole ratio of NaOH:=2:1 = =11.8/10000.1/2 =5.9xmol Molarity of = 5.9X/(25/1000) =2.36 x M + 2 Mn+ 16 2+8+10 Mole ratio of : Mn=5:2 = =519.2/10000.02/2 =9.610^-4 mol Mole of sodium ethane-1,2-dioate = 9.6x-5.91 l = 3.7 x mol Molarity of sodium ethane-1,2-dioate in mixture = 3.7 x/(25/1000) =1.48xM DISCUSSIONS CHOICE OF INDICATORS Phenolphthalein is used as indicator in the reaction between Sodium hydroxide and ethane-1, 2-dioic acid because the reaction involves a weak acid titrated against a strong alkali. REASON FOR HEATING THE MIXTURE SOLUTION The rate reaction between and Mn is very slow as there is repulsion between anion. REASON FOR HEATING MIXTURE SOLUTION IN THE CONICAL FLASK INSTEAD OF MN IN THE BURETTE Aqueous solution of Potassium permanganate KMn is unstable and can easily be decomposed. The decomposition is accelerated by heat. If it is put in the conical flask and heated, it will easily oxidize water to oxygen and the amount of KMn is therefore decreased. 4Mn 4Mn +3 In addition, if hot Potassium permanganate solution is added to the burette, it may cause expansion of burette, causing inaccurate measurement. END POINT The end-point is not very permanent because if the Mn ion is in large excess, the following reaction occur: 2 Mn+3+ 2 +4 DECOPOSITION OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE Potassium permanganate is easily decomposed and the decomposition is speed up by light, heat, acids, base, reducing agent in air such as hydrogen sulphide gas, , , and even by the end-product Therefore, it should be stored in brown bottle and should be standardized before use. ABSORPTION OF WATER BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE sodium hydroxide absorb water from air. The volume of solution increase, and hence cause a decrease in concentration, causing inaccurate calculation CONCLUSION The concentration of sodium ethane-1,2-dioate is 1.48xM while ethane-1, 2-dioic acids is 2.36 x M

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Psychology And Its Branches Sociology Essay

Psychology And Its Branches Sociology Essay First of all psychology is the study of human behaviour. The sole purpose of psychology is to unravel the mystery of why and individual acts a certain way. Psychology examines an individuals specific actions, responses and factors that dictate how an individual reacts under set conditions and the environment. The behaviour of an individual has an impact on the greater society that surrounds the individual. Psychological theories cover many branches including organizational psychology, environmental psychology, development psychology, forensic psychology and sports psychology. The talk about psychology and its branches bring up an individual in particular, Robert William Pickton. This former pig farmer and serial killer convicted of the second degree murders of six Canadian women in 2007. He was also charged with the murder of twenty additional women. The Canadian man born in British Columbia is considered a psychopath and is very easily determined as one because of his childhood. The branch of psychology that specifically affected Picktons mentality was his development as a child and the environment he grew up in, in other words development psychology. Robert Pickton grew up in a childhood filled with denial from his mother. Due to Roberts mother heavy work regime he would never have fun, spend time with friends or time to play. If Robert was not in school, he would be found in the slaughterhouse where his environment affected his mentality. In such an environment it is easy to see the development psychology theory that has had a major effect on Picktons psychopath killing spree up to a total of forty-nine victims. Erik Erikson believes that human behaviour can be understood through the experiences an individual encounters during their development. This directly relates to Robert Pickton because of the violent and gruesome environment Pickton grew up in, it is easy to analyze why his psychological behaviour has become what it is today. Erikson suggests that a person may pass a stage of psychological development or they get stuck. For example, an infant either trusts his/her caregivers or s/he doesnt. This failure of trust gain can affect the persons trusting relationship later on in life. This same ideology goes for Pickton; he grew up in an environment where killing was occurring periodically in a day. This harsh and violent environment has caused Pickton to have a violent and gruesome psychological personality. He believes that killing has no evil or wrong in it, this is because of the psychological development theory. Pickton has been stuck in this psychological environment since his childho od and has been prominent in his life. Sociology Perspective: Sociology is a social science perspective that states one area of society will always have an effect; it can be either direct or indirect. This is due to society being a complex structure where there will always be modifications and changes in it due to society itself. The ideology of society influences decisions made on marriage, economics, love, freedom, politics etc. However, recognizing these facets of life does not assist with the explanation of their existence. In other words, sociology is the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society this can include social problems within society. Robert William Pickton had a criminal mind set because of his childhood as explained through psychological development. Through his childhood and Picktons brutal treatment as a child from his mother, Pickton grew intolerance for the opposite sex. He felt that males are dominant over females and thus the feminist theory of female oppression. Through the sociological feminist perspective Pickton neglected the female figure. His behaviour as a serial killer towards women was triggered through his childhood and ever since he has developed a feminist social view where he believes males are the dominant gender over females. Hostile affection from Picktons mother led to an angrier individual later on towards the opposite sex and thus the criminal acts released against women in Picktons elder years. The sociological analysis of Marxist Feminism Theory also plays a role in the behaviour of Robert William Pickton. This implies the lack of balance in society in terms of gender classes in the economic perspective of sociology. Stereotypes within society influenced Pickton as he believed women have a lesser role in society than males. This is why Pickton would go for vulnerable areas for kidnapping and base his attacks on lower class levels. For example, Robert Pickton would target women that were prostitutes or drug addicts because there class level in society was lower than his. Picktons targeting specific groups of women instead of the women gender as a whole illustrated sociological perspective of feminism. Pickton tried to achieve structural functionalism in society where there is a balance, equilibrium in society by maintaining its interdependent social structures. Talcott Parsons stated, as much as things change they stay the same. Structural Functionalism deals with the maintenance within a society; it defines changes within a system and will always seek a way to return to its normal functioning state. As Parsons stated, Pickton followed this social theory as he thought he was bringing balance to society by eliminating the lower class of females. Parsons also mentioned, When part of the system breaks down, it is necessary for the other components of the society to take over the function of the missing social structure or to assist with the recreation of the malfunctioning social structure. This supports Picktons choice in achieving structural functionalism by the removal of the lower class which consisted of females. Anthropology Perspective: Anthropology is the social science perspective of studying people and their culture. Anthropology exists to explore a variety of social phenomena. A benefit associated with anthropology is that its research lies in the huge perspective on the development and sustainability of human culture. This social science perspective poses questions concerning the continuation of poverty, racism, violence and social inequality in the world. There are four main types of anthropology; including linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, and biological or physical anthropology. Each type studies different aspects of people and their respective cultures including questions such as; why do humans have such different ways of thinking, living and acting? This is the social science perspective of anthropology. Robert Picktons social interactions and relationships were not fully established. Pickton lived his life in rejection; he was rejected of all social interactions which later led to his rage and intolerance against women. Picktons childhood was lived in neglect and the omitting of social interactions with other kids his age. The entire cause for this rejection was because of his mother, a female figure who was very brutal and hostile to the young Robert Pickton. This inevitably led to anger being stored throughout Picktons life towards women and thus the targeted attacking of women by Pickton. Pickton thought of his values and morals over others, specifically prostitutes (again targeting women). Pickton already thought of women as poor and inferior to males, now including prostitution he believed that those women did not deserve to live amongst society and him. Robert believed that to earn a living an individual should go through pain and hardship but prostitution in his perspective c learly did not show that. He believed prostitution made an earning with pleasure in life and not pain; he believed that individuals should earn a living from physical labour and pain. Robert would never feel any sympathy for women especially prostitutes, thus his guilt-free attitude in killing these specified group of women. Robert King Merton bases his interpretation of society using the functionalist perspective. Functionalism is a method for understanding how social institutions fill social needs.  Every custom or practice in society provides a form of stability for the entire system. This seems like a grand theory but social institutions provide for the physical and psychological needs for its society members.  Sex is a practice of functionalism as it is a physical and psychological need for humans. Pickton was a very shy and quiet individual but he acquired sex because it stored up inside of him. Pickton would host wild parties and orgies to release his chaotic thoughts. This also explains why Pickton would have sex with the women he would kidnap and then kill her, it is a practice of Picktons functionalism and this describes the social science perspective of anthropology. Hypothesis: Psychoanalysis, Functionalism and Feminism Psychoanalysis is a psychological theory founded in the late 19th century and early 20th century by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. In involves the inherited constitution of personality which is an individuals development determined by events in their childhood. Cognition, human behaviour and experience are largely determined by irrational drives. Mental disturbances from psychology occur when there are conflicts between conscious and unconscious material. Functionalisms core idea is that mental states are constituted solely by their functional role. It is a theoretical level between physical implementation and behavioural output. Functionalism is a method for understanding how social institutions fill social needs. Every custom or practice in society provides a form of stability for the entire system. This seems like a grand theory but social institutions provide for the physical and psychological needs for its society members. Feminism examines the perspective of women and their rights within a society, specifically a male dominated society. To understand and comprehend a serial killer as to what his/her motives are it is important to instigate an investigation. Through this investigation it is important to determine the unconscious and conscious mind of the serial killer by taking a look at their ego. This investigation will determine the drive of the serial killer as to what they wish to achieve, what pleasure they wish to achieve etc. Functionalists regard crime as a necessary guideline in society because it sets moral guidelines and rules through legal punishment. An increase in criminal behaviour loses the societys trust whereas a decrease in criminal behaviour illustrates that individuals have no freedom or individuality. When determining a serial killer it is important to gain information of the insights of the psychoanalytic, feminist and functionalist perspectives. These three perspectives combined can determine and give a thorough understanding of a serial killers ambition, pleasure and the ego of the criminal.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Impact Of Extended Trading Hours Commerce Essay

The Impact Of Extended Trading Hours Commerce Essay House of Travel is a Kiwi owned and operated business, this is unique industry because their outlets and a true business partnership between local owner operators and House of Travel Holdings having 75 plus retail outlets nationwide. Their 75% of retail outlets are situated in Shopping Mall and rest of 25% are in local Business areas. Chris Paulsen, founder and managing director of House of Travel had a dream that travel could be delivered to the consumer in a different way. The company gets suggestion from their consumers to extend the working hours of their retail outlets situated in local business area the present working hours is 9am to 5 pm weekdays and 9am to 1pm on Saturday. These hours may be extended to benefit more customers but before making this changes the company has to check thoroughly that how this will work and the advantages and disadvantages besides extending the business hours, for management and employees of house of travel. He started collecting brief report from the Owner operator that How the impact of extended hours will affect you economically, financially, and environmentally (Paulsen, 2011) and we get this opportunity to do research on this topic. It is with pleasure that we submit our report on extended working hours, the implications for public policy reform, and our recommendations for your consideration. The report gives an overview of the actual and potential effects of extended working hours on individuals, families and communities based on the findings of empirical studies and the views of key stakeholders, employees and their families and peak bodies. It outlines the major approaches that have been adopted in other jurisdictions, which indicate the complexities associated with determining the most effective means of addressing extended hours. Any measure aimed at minimizing the impact of extended hours has implications for the differing needs and aspirations of employees, employers and the community. Nevertheless, the majority of the Group felt that there was a solution although it may not be one which is perfect or which satisfies everyone. Where individual members of the Group held views dissenting from the majority on specific issues, these opinions and the reasons for them have been included. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the management of House of Travel for research and executive support. Introduction 1. The working hours trend has been seen since long as 9 am to 5 most of the areas of business in several industrialized countries we called as traditional and offices, there are limited changes for the retail business such as groceries, and supermarkets. 2. The interest in extending working hours for House of Travel in Auckland is that there customers may get more and more benefit from the extended trading hours. 3. There are examples for the overseas jurisdictions have regulated extended hours of working in order to minimize its detrimental health and social effects on workers. 4. The project was assigned to our Active Group to do the through research and submit the report that the impact of Extended hours how its work and what are the advantages and disadvantages. 5. We the student of Management Class in a Group ( Active Group )took the challenge and started the research with the help of our studies and research we will submit the report before 18th May 2011. 6. This was a challenge for us and we have to think that from where we start, so we decided in our Group meeting to distribute the work among the members of the group. The terms of reference was described for each member of the group as under. Procedures The Group is to receive and consider comment from the management and staff of House of Travel and make recommendations for extending trading hours for their outlets outside the shopping malls and to submit the feedback and recommendation that how its work and how its effect on the employee and management of company. It was a big challenge for the group to deal in this and we started working jointly on this project and started collecting data relating to this project. 1. The first and the most thing was to check that how employees will be affected as a result of extending hours relating to health and safety issue , such as fatigue. 2. To check the specific models and general structures and to provide proper guidance to the management of House of Travel on working hours and to provide evidence for serious health and safety issues. 3. To check the Retail Trading Laws for extending trading hours from the Department of Labor New Zealand, and to do proper research for the betterment of the company as well as their employees. 4. To verify that how the employees and their families will be effected by this extended trading hours and how it will impact on the health of individual employees and their families. The research Objectives The objectives of the project were identified as: To take views of entire employee one to one basis and to know their willingness of working long hours. The check the level of cost involved in extending trading hours and how it will benefit the company as well as employees. To check that how this new implementation will work and affect the health and safety of employee. Research methods The research used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative research The quantitative research comprised two employer surveys: First we had interview the employers to identify the knowledge and prevalence of extended working hours in retail outlets. The survey from three employers from different sectors and different business was conducted as under: 1. Management of House of Travel, Auckland 2. Management of Travel2000, Auckland 3. Management of M.K. Tours and Travels, Auckland Framework was set for questionnaire for the above employer and the following information was taken from them. 1. What benefit you think for extending Trading Hours? 2. How it will work e.g. roaster etc? 3. Will this affect the employee health and safety and security of organization? The response we received from the above employers shows that on 50/50 basis some of the employers and willing the ready to implement the extending trading hours rest of were was not supportive on several grounds. The qualitative research The qualitative research was conducted face to face with employees of House of Travel with giving the feedback form. Those employees willing to give the feedback from some of them were not interested but those who were interested in survey has given the feedback and which is enclosed as Appendix 1. The research was done and several websites and reports were referred to for preparing this report as under : the employers in the quantitative phase trade associations Retail Business Regulation Unions, including the Council of Trade Unions Work and Income work brokers. The respondents The feedback from employers and employees were submitted here in the qualitative research. The focus on the effect for extending hours and its amendments were discusses with the management of House of Travel verbally and explain them the procedure that if this implementation takes place there should be some specific models and rules to be referred and in light of the facts we have to give our suggestion that the extended hours and effective or not. Data analysis Quantitative The initial and follow-up survey were analyzed by our group and discussed through to differentiate reasons that to what extend the extended hours are feasible. Qualitative The notes and transcripts from the interviews were taken on and QA forms for research questions. Extensive notes were made at interviews The recorded data was analyzed with reference to the participants circumstances; findings for any one person or group were compared against those of the entire data set. Findings Structure of report: The structure of the report was submitted on the specific pattern and the collected material was thoroughly studied and present accordingly to check that the if the extended hours and implemented it will benefit both employer and employee and to check the entire aspect of extending hours. Limitations of the research Keeping in mind the current law and health and safety issues we submitted the details in our report as well as the cost incurred by the employer and also comparing the margin ratio. While submitting the report well also keep in mind the current law and the regulation of the New Zealand government as well as market trend and the area where the organization willing to extend the trading hours. 1. To present the findings of the Group appraisal relating to extending trading hours and how it will affect the employer and their employees. 2. To collect the statistical information on working hours from Auckland region and also from the various sources to analyzed working time arrangement and its effects. 3. To consult the oral interviews and written feedback from the employers and the employers for the House of Travel. 4. To meet the employees and Management of House of Travel to contribute and discuss about the effects of extended working hours on health and safety issues. 5. Oral and written submission was received through intensive fact to face discussion about employee experience of extended hours. The employees and employers were participated in the review process. 6. The Group has not investigated the merit of each employees claims but in general and keep in mind of their relative importance, but the report has been made in both written and oral submissions or in the literature reviewed. Submission Hereby submit that the oral and written interviews taken from the employer and employees of house of travel and other relevant sources; we also referred various websites, including Australian Government Website relating to extending trading hours which are also referred below with references. As per our learning we has taken keen part in looking specific models and even code of conduct for retail operation from Government as well as private organization. Our research shows that most of the employees not willing to work long hours but been on the key position they do not neglect and they have to work because the management wishes that he should work long hours. Working long hours will defiantly affect eh health for the employee who can be seen from various angles and from various points of view we think that working long hours or extending trading hours are not feasible for both the organization as well as for the employee. Even the organization has to involve in all sorts of legal steps towards employee safety, safety for their belongings and even cash handling. It is not advisable that a single person can work after hours in a hug office or retail outlets outside the shopping mall. We have some examples cited below which shows that extended hours are feasible for big companies of consumer products but it is not advisable for a small retail outlets they has to do more and more paperwork before planning to extend the trading hours. Our views and recommendation is submitted hereunder for House of Travel and we also offer our suggestion for implementing extended hours. We have included the details taken from defferent websites and reports e.g. work for dole, government website, Australian Parliament website, police website etc indicating the health and safety issue fo the employee working long hours. Results Members of the business community agree that for many companies, hours of operation are likely to continue to expand, as demands for convenience on the part of both individual and corporate customers do not appear likely to abate any time soon. But small business owners should make sure that they lay the appropriate groundwork for an expansion of operating hours before committing to it. But the business owner who takes the time to study these issues in advance will be much better equipped to handle them in an effective fashion than the owner who tackles each issue as it rears its head. (Executive, 2011) Competitive pressures-Analysts point out that simple economics have played a large part in the surge in expanded business hours for many companies. The ceaseless search for efficiencies and the high cost of adding capacity are compelling many small companies to squeeze more out of existing facilities by adding second and third shifts, said Dale Buss in a Nations Business article entitled A Wake-Up Call for Companies (Executive, 2011) It seems that that extended hours are feasible at some stage but not always, our research shows that it is expensive, risky and not at all time acceptable by the employers as well as employees But on other hand the Australian government has regulated and passes the extended hours in Parliament until 9.00 pm retailers able to open their businesses until 9pm on weekdays. However, the ALP went to the last election with a pledge to extend weeknight trading hours to 7pm. Mr Barnett made the announcement on the front steps of Parliament that, just as the Chamber of Commerce and Industry responded in the grounds nearby to what it called vested interest groups opposed to deregulation. (Sonti, 2009) A New Zealand Perspective: Why do we need to act? Whilst work-life balance is a global issue, there are specific considerations for New Zealand. In 2005 the Business Council contributed to the Department of Labours Consultative project on work-life balance. While New Zealand has a high number of part-time workers, we also have a high number of people working very long hours. New Zealanders have increased hours worked per capita by around 18% since 1970 the second fastest rate behind the US and in sharp contrast to Europe where hours have steadily decreased. We have seen the proportion of employed people who work a standard 40 hour week fall from 35% to 30% in the past 15 years with 22% people working more than 50 hours per week. On an average day, 40% of people are at work before 8am and one in four people work in the evenings. We continue to embrace a long hours culture. For many workers, cell phones, text messaging, e-mail and laptops have forced work into the home in new ways that lengthen working days and intensify work. Workers and partners in a survey by the New Zealand Council of Trade Unions said that many employers held an expectation that workers were available well beyond their standard work hours. Some described being expected to have their mobiles on for long periods. This is particularly true for some part-time employees who are not necessarily in the office full-time during normal business hours. Excessive hours at work are equated with rising stress levels which affect health, fitness and personal relationships. A recent article in the British Medical Journal has reported that people who suffer from chronic stress caused by their job are more likely to develop heart disease and diabetes. Both of these are major health concerns in New Zealand. Over recent years, lower unemployment means employees are more able to make employer choices favoring organizations that offer flexible terms and conditions. However whilst large companies particularly in the service or consultancy sector have introduced initiatives to improve work-life balance, this may prove more difficult for production based organizations and SMEs. The total workforce in New Zealand approximates 2 million people10. 96% of New Zealand enterprises employ 19 or fewer people and in total account for 29% of the total workforce and contribute 27% of the countrys economy. The New Zealand manufacturing sector employs 12% of the workforce and contributes 15% of the economy. It is equally important that we find a way to ensure that these employees. (council, 2010) It seems that the Extended hours for House of travel is not feasible as stated above it will affect the work life balance of employees and also it will cost more for the company the approximately cost graph is given below showing how it will impact on organization as well as employees. Normal working hours 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday and 9am to 1pm on Saturday these are the limited times which are feasible for employers and employees both to work in safe environment and also stress less working. The cost which we see for extending hours from 5pm to 9pm on Monday to Friday i.e. 4 hours daily 4 x 5 = 20 hours a week and on 1pm to 5pm on Saturday so total working hours come to 25 hours a week (Extra hours). If the outlet hire minimum 1 counter staff and 1 back support staff + 1 Security Guard to look after the staff during extended hours so 25 x 3 if suppose the pay scale for each staff is $15 an hour so the organization has to pay NZ$1125 per week to the staff + the utility bills which comes to 12% of the average ratio so as per study the organization is paying nearly NZ$ 2000 extra a week. If the company hires mobile manager then it will cost less only company has to pay the hourly charges to one mobile manager instead of opening extended trading hours of shop. An as per our survey we receive just one or two customers after hours during the extended hours so it is not feasible to cover up the cost of extended hours and it is also risky to operate the outlets after hours where all the shops closed in the market. As per New Zealand Law for employees safety comes first Thousands of people attend work daily and never experience any situation where personal safety is threatened. Whilst a workplace under responsible management may provide a reasonable level of protection, situations affecting personal safety could still occur. Employers are required under Occupational Health and Safety legislation to have policies and procedures in place to provide a safe working environment for staff. This can be achieved by undertaking a survey to assess security and potential risk situations. The information produced by a survey will identify measures necessary for ensuring staff safety and security, and form the basis of developing a work safety plan. This information, prepared by the Police Community Relations Section, in consultation with various community groups, contains a series of guidelines for both staff and management. While primarily presented with the safety of women in mind, these suggestions can equally apply to any person in the workplace. (police, 2011) Working irregular hours Some businesses may store items of considerable value or hold significant amounts of cash, which may be attractive to criminals waiting for the first employee to arrive with safe keys or access codes. Businesses should have a policy on safe entry procedures for staff arriving at work. When employees are present outside of regular business hours, plan to have at least two staff working together if possible. Make provision to escort staff to their vehicles when work has finished, or have arrangements in place to facilitate safe exit from the building and vicinity. If staff must work alone, measures to enhance safety can include: Ensuring the building can be adequately secured from the inside Keeping doors locked to prevent casual entry, if appropriate Displaying warning signs that video surveillance cameras are operating Using security grilles for staff protection if the nature of the business permits Providing staff with a remote control device that can be used to activate an audible alarm and alert a security company, if safety is threatened. If you will be finishing late: Park as near to your building as possible in an area that will be well lit at night Consider other transport options if the only parking available is at an isolated location Let someone know you will be working late Check that you are secure inside the building and that no doors or windows have been left open or unlocked When leaving the building check the immediate area outside for any people loitering, before opening the door Use the best lit route to your car and have someone walk with you if possible. (police, 2011) All the above factors are countable and considering the above factors we came to the conclusion that it is not feasible to try for extending hours for the outlets outside the shopping mall in the local business areas. Conclusion We suggest it would be reasonable to embrace the general principle of reasonable hours but to require it to be operational at the enterprise and/or industry level. That is, to permit extended hours but within a framework that requires an individual organization to present a coherent argument as to why working extended hours in a specific context does not disadvantage the community or compromise safety in the workplace. It seems that after through research the conclusion is that the extended hours are not feasible, it will simply increase cost for the company and stress for the employee referring to health and safety issues of the employee and security reasons for the employee working extra hours, even the regulation does not allow the company to work extra hours outside shopping mall i.e. in open market place where all the shops and office are closed at about 5.00 in afternoon and to work extra hours will create hindrance for management and staff both. The group came to the conclusion that instead of extra hours there is few more suggestion that if the management finds suitable can adopt the same and as per our research it is same as working extra hours or extending trading hours. The suggestion is as under: Company can provide communication equipment like laptops, mobile phone to entertain customers calling after hours and deal with them or satisfied their needs or reply their queries relating to the business and that will fulfill the need of customer as well as will not cost much more to the company. As seen from the market trend now days for e business the company itself is having Hot website which is much more advance and self-explanatory customer can use that website for their queries, or can call the mobile sales person after hours which is appointed by the company to fulfill the customer needs. The company can provide commission to the staff for working extra hours outside the office anywhere and can earn extra income or may be company can pay any additional or extra pay to the employee working after hours from their own place as per their own suitability. Recommendation: The Group takes proud to recommend the following factors for the company and request the management of House of Travel to look into it and if they think it is feasible then can be implementing. The group is available for any comments and explanation for their recommendation provided herein for the betterment of company. Normal working hours 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday and 9am to 1pm on Saturday these are the limited times which are feasible for employers and employees both to work in safe environment and also stress less working. The cost which we see for extending hours from 5pm to 9pm on Monday to Friday i.e. 4 hours daily 4 x 5 = 20 hours a week and on 1pm to 5pm on Saturday so total working hours come to 25 hours a week (Extra hours). If the outlet hire minimum 1 counter staff and 1 back support staff + 1 Security Guard to look after the staff during extended hours so 25 x 3 if suppose the pay scale for each staff is $15 an hour so the organization has to pay NZ$1125 per week to the staff + the utility bills which comes to 12% of the average ratio so as per study the organization is paying nearly NZ$ 2000 extra a week. If the company hires mobile manager then it will cost less only company has to pay the hourly charges to one mobile manager instead of opening extended trading hours of shop. Our Recommendation is that the company can choose the employee after consulting them that who is available to work after hours from home to attend the phone calls so the office phone can be diverted to their home phone or companys mobile phone and the customer calling after hours can be attended and entertained. The company will refer the policy which is in appendix 1 of this report and frame new policy accordingly for the employee who is working after hours, the condition of working may be discussed between the employer and employee by them self-keeping all ethical issue in mind and also the family balance life police which may not affect the employees personal life. The employee who is volunteer to work after hours can be get benefit as per the companys policy and it should be fair and equal for every employee who are willing to cooperate in this new policy. Even the company can hire a call center to work on company behalf after hours or can use the formula of telework as it seems that nowadays more and more companies throughout the world relying on telemarkers or call centers (England, 2010) Bibliography council, N. Z. (2010). Work life balance report. Auckland: New Zealand Business council. England, B. (2010, september 09). Telework New Zealand. Retrieved May 11, 2011, from Executive, G. R. (2011). Business Hours encylopedia. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from Industries news from new from Paulsen, C. (2011, January 17). How the impact of extended hours. Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. police, N. Z. (2011). Safety in work place. Retrieved April 16, 2011, from www. satefy in work place/New Zealand Sonti, C. (2009, June 16). Goverment to introduce Trading Hours legislation. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from

Monday, August 19, 2019

Commercialization and Tourism of Tibet’s Sacred Mountains :: Travel Economics Papers

Commercialization and Tourism of Tibet’s Sacred Mountains Tourism is emerging as a major industry, and in recent decades, it has developed rapidly in mountainous regions throughout the world, especially in the Himalayas. Presently it is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The contemporary global middle-class spends a large amount of their disposable income on recreation and leisure. That money is increasingly being spent on activities such as mountaineering and trekking in the Himalayas and on the Tibetan plateau. This growth in the tourism sector has increased the influx of capital into the Tibetan economy while at the same time negatively changing the socio-cultural aspects of Tibetan life and the environment in which Tibetan communities make their home. The increase in tourism in Tibet and the consequent commercialization of Tibet’s sacred mountains may lead to a loss of traditional forms of cultural expression among the diverse indigenous people of Tibet. Sacred Worldview The Tibetan people behold a sacred worldview that embodies adoration and worship for their mountains. â€Å"As though realizing that their very existence depended on the water, which flowed down from the mountains, they worshipped them† (Cameron 1984: 31). To show respect for the mountains, the Tibetans lined mountain tracks with shrines, adorned prayer-flags on mountain slopes, and they thought of mountain peaks as gods. Even the names the Tibetans give their mountains show respect. They call Mount Everest the â€Å"Goddess mother of the world† and Annapurna the â€Å"Bringer of Life† (Cameron 1984: 21). The Tibetan civilization and religion in fact has deep roots in an appreciation of the environment (Wardle et al. 1996: vi). In the Buddhist tradition, spaces become sacred by their association with the Buddha or with other sacred persons (Eckel 2002: 65). Buddhism encourages this placement of value on land and nature. Buddhists believe that they live in harmony with nature, are interdependent with it, and continuity exists. Therefore, any destruction of nature that may be caused by tourism is viewed as sacrilegious. Types of Tourists Humans in the Himalayas over time traveled for the purposes of trade, resources, work, pilgrimage, or socializing. Some confirmations that travel has been an ongoing feature of the mountainous regions are the intricate systems of walking trails, resting places, and mountain passes, and presence of cultural traditions such as inn keeping and porters. Trade, livestock movements, journeys to work and ceremony are all traditional events that link the Himalayan places to one another over time (Karan and Zurick 1999: 16). Commercialization and Tourism of Tibet’s Sacred Mountains :: Travel Economics Papers Commercialization and Tourism of Tibet’s Sacred Mountains Tourism is emerging as a major industry, and in recent decades, it has developed rapidly in mountainous regions throughout the world, especially in the Himalayas. Presently it is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The contemporary global middle-class spends a large amount of their disposable income on recreation and leisure. That money is increasingly being spent on activities such as mountaineering and trekking in the Himalayas and on the Tibetan plateau. This growth in the tourism sector has increased the influx of capital into the Tibetan economy while at the same time negatively changing the socio-cultural aspects of Tibetan life and the environment in which Tibetan communities make their home. The increase in tourism in Tibet and the consequent commercialization of Tibet’s sacred mountains may lead to a loss of traditional forms of cultural expression among the diverse indigenous people of Tibet. Sacred Worldview The Tibetan people behold a sacred worldview that embodies adoration and worship for their mountains. â€Å"As though realizing that their very existence depended on the water, which flowed down from the mountains, they worshipped them† (Cameron 1984: 31). To show respect for the mountains, the Tibetans lined mountain tracks with shrines, adorned prayer-flags on mountain slopes, and they thought of mountain peaks as gods. Even the names the Tibetans give their mountains show respect. They call Mount Everest the â€Å"Goddess mother of the world† and Annapurna the â€Å"Bringer of Life† (Cameron 1984: 21). The Tibetan civilization and religion in fact has deep roots in an appreciation of the environment (Wardle et al. 1996: vi). In the Buddhist tradition, spaces become sacred by their association with the Buddha or with other sacred persons (Eckel 2002: 65). Buddhism encourages this placement of value on land and nature. Buddhists believe that they live in harmony with nature, are interdependent with it, and continuity exists. Therefore, any destruction of nature that may be caused by tourism is viewed as sacrilegious. Types of Tourists Humans in the Himalayas over time traveled for the purposes of trade, resources, work, pilgrimage, or socializing. Some confirmations that travel has been an ongoing feature of the mountainous regions are the intricate systems of walking trails, resting places, and mountain passes, and presence of cultural traditions such as inn keeping and porters. Trade, livestock movements, journeys to work and ceremony are all traditional events that link the Himalayan places to one another over time (Karan and Zurick 1999: 16).

Sunday, August 18, 2019

My Memories of the State Park Essays -- Personal Experience

When I think about my favorite childhood places to visit, one spot stands out above the rest. My parents took my family to the State Park every year on Columbus Day weekend. Cramped in a station wagon between my three other brothers in the back seat, I remember the car ride to seemingly take triple the amount of time it really took. The time that it took to get to the state park was always increased when my parents would stop for lunch at the half way point, something they did each and every time. I knew we were close when I saw a sign for the Mall. It was a very weathered sign on the side of an even more deteriorating barn that could not have been larger than a classroom. I always laughed to myself about this sign because even though the sign advertised the mall was four miles ahead, the lettering of â€Å"4 miles ahead† was in a text size that you could barely make out as a passenger in a car traveling fifty miles per hour. If you were not paying attention, you would mistake this element torn building as the actual mall and feel a slight pity for the poor town. Though, seeing this sign and feeling the pity was a small price to pay for nearly being at your favorite place on Earth and out of your cramped conveyance. Shortly after the sign, there are road signs for the State Park which lead you to a steep, winding mountain road. Going up this incline in an overstuffed, late model station wagon seemed like it took more time than the two hour car ride it took to get to it. Then, finally, a carved boulder on the right side of the road appeared and proclaimed â€Å"STATE PARK.† This rock always had special meaning to me. It was a massive stone that never shifted from where it settled probably several decades ago. Th... visitors great experiences and upon arrival to it, it will be your turn to have them. The State Park holds many other places that offer different sorts of ventures, but when you truly respect the land, the tiniest encounters often yield the largest rewards. When you forego visiting the popular tourist destinations and decide to make your own exploits, the possibility of experiencing true freedom is increased. Going to a crowded beachfront by the lake, waiting in lines for bathrooms or to buy worms for fishing has less potential for adventure than simply walking into the woods without so much as a destination. There, in the woods, you will forget for hours that you live in society. Shortly after that absence of thought, you will find yourself doing unexpected and fulfilling activities that will shape your mind and outlook on life for as long as you live.