Monday, September 30, 2019

The Impact of Wach Tv Children

Title: -The Impact of watchingTelevision for Children The Case of Children watching Television in Ethiopia Chapter One 1. Introduction 1. 1 Back Ground Television (TV) has its good side. It can be entertaining and educational, and can open up new worlds for kids, giving them a chance to travel the globe, learn about different cultures, and gain exposure to ideas they may never encounter in their own community. Shows with a prosaically message can have a positive effect on kids' behavior; programs with positive role models can influence viewers to make positive lifestyle changes.However, the reverse can also be true:   Kids are likely to learn things from TV that parents don't want them to learn. TV can affect kids' health, behavior and family life in negative ways. Whether good or bad, television has found its way into the lives of people all over the world and it an important part of life for many. Some consider it to be a great invention while others say that it harms people and society. Here is a summary of those thoughts. Television is often the main or only source of information about current events and biased or inadequate reporting can deliver inaccurate or misleading information and opinion.Ethiopian Television was established in 1964 with assistance from the British firm, Thomson. It was created to highlight the Organization of African Unity (OAU) meeting that took place in Addis Ababa that same year. Color television broadcast began in 1982 in commemoration of the founding of Workers' Party of Ethiopia (WPE). The current structure and goals of ETV were established 1987 with Proclamation This research may see general and specific area of in Addis Ababa, children see television that its impact.The television and channel clients are increasing every day around the city so, we need to the advantage and disadvantages in the children see tv. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem In recent years, TV, video and DVD programs have come on the market—and now ev en a cable channel for children. We don't know yet what effect TV-viewing by children may have on their development. We do know that time spent watching TV replaces time spent interacting with caregivers and other children. Social interaction is critical to a child's healthy affected.A great deal is known about children and television, because there have been thousands of studies on the subject. Research has studied how TV affects kids' sleep, weight, grades, behavior, and more. Spending time watching TV can take time away from healthy activities like active play outside with friends, eating dinner together as a family, or reading. TV time also takes away from participating in sports, music, art or other activities that require practice to become skillful. Children can be exposed to programming that is not appropriate for their age.Adult themes of sex and violence are far too easily accessed and they destroy the innocence of children. Adults frequently spend many hours each day watc hing television to the detriment of work or family life. 1. 3 Objectives This research goal to show the impact of watching TV children among the cultural, society and school life in Addis Ababa. To show the problem and recommend the way of protecting and minimizing the problem through awareness of the research. How big a presence is TV in kids' lives? * TV viewing among kids is at an eight-year high.On average, children ages 2-5 spend 32 hours a week in front of a TV—watching television, DVDs, DVR and videos, and using a game console. Kids ages 6-11 spend about 28 hours a week in front of the TV. The vast majority of this viewing (97%) is of live TV [1]. * 71% of 8- to 18-year-olds have a TV in their bedroom [1a]; 54% have a DVD/VCR player, 37% have cable/satellite TV, and 20% have premium channels [2]. * Media technology now offers more ways to access TV content, such as on the Internet, cell phones and iPods.This has led to an increase in time spent viewing TV, even as TV-s et viewing has declined. 41% of TV-viewing is now online, time-shifted, DVD or mobile [2a]. * In about two-thirds of households, the TV is â€Å"usually† on during meals [3]. * In 53% of households of 7th- to 12th-graders, there are no rules about TV watching [4]. * In 51% of households, the TV is on â€Å"most† of the time [5]. * Kids with a TV in their bedroom spend an average of almost 1. 5 hours more per day watching TV than kids without a TV in the bedroom. * Many parents encourage their toddlers to watch television. Find out more about TV in the lives of children ages zero to six. * Find out more about media in the lives of 8- to 18-year olds. As you can see, if your child is typical, TV is playing a very big role in their life. Here are some key research findings to keep in mind as you decide what kind of role you want TV to play in your family: * TV viewing is probably replacing activities in your child' s life that you would rather have them do (things like pl aying with friends [6] , being physically active, getting fresh air, reading, playing imaginatively, doing homework [7], doing chores). Kids who spend more time watching TV (both with and without parents and siblings present) spend less time interacting with family members. [8] * Excessive TV viewing can contribute to poor grades [8a], sleep problems, behavior problems, obesity, and risky behavior. * Most children’s programming does not teach what parents say they want their children to learn; many shows are filled with stereotypes, violent solutions to problems, and mean behavior. * Advertisers target kids, and on average, children see tens of thousands of TV commercials each year [9]. This includes many ads for unhealthy snack foods and drinks.Children and youth see, on average, about 2,000 beer and wine ads on TV each year [10]. * Kids see favorite characters smoking, drinking, and involved in sexual situations and other risky behaviors in the shows and movies they watch o n TV. * More on how television viewing affects children. * For more detailed information on these and other issues, read on. Does TV affect children's brain development? With television programs—and even a cable channel—designed and marketed specifically for babies, whether kids under two years of age should be watching becomes an important question.While we are learning more all the time about early brain development, we do not yet have a clear idea how television may affect it. Some studies link early TV viewing with later attention problems, such as ADHD. However, other experts disagree with these results. One study found that TV viewing before age three slightly hurt several measures of later cognitive development, but that between ages three and five it slightly helped reading scores [11]. The American Academy of Pediatrics takes a â€Å"better-safe-than-sorry† stance on TV for young children [12]. It may be tempting to put your infant or toddler in front o f the television, especially to watch shows created just for children under age two. But the American Academy of Pediatrics says: Don't do it! These early years are crucial in a child's development. The Academy is concerned about the impact of television programming intended for children younger than age two and how it could affect your child's development. Pediatricians strongly oppose targeted programming, especially when it's used to market toys, games, dolls, unhealthy food and other products to toddlers.Any positive effect of television on infants and toddlers is still open to question, but the benefits of parent-child interactions are proven. Under age two, talking, singing, reading, listening to music or playing are far more important to a child's development than any TV show. † In addition, TV can discourage and replace reading. Reading requires much more thinking than television, and we know that reading fosters young people's healthy brain development. Kids from fami lies that have the TV on a lot spend less time reading and being read to, and are less likely to be able to read [13].What about TV and aggressive or violent behavior? Literally thousands of studies since the 1950s have asked whether there is a link between exposure to media violence and violent behavior. All but 18 have answered, â€Å"Yes. †Ã‚  Ã‚   The evidence from the research is overwhelming. According to the AAP, â€Å"Extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and fear of being harmed. † [14]   Watching violent shows is also linked with having less empathy toward others [14a]. An average American child will see 200,000 violent acts and 16,000 murders on TV by age 18 [15]. * Two-thirds of all programming contains violence [16]. * Programs designed for children more often contain violence than adult TV [17]. * Most violent acts go unpunished on TV and are often accomp anied by humor. The consequences of human suffering and loss are rarely depicted. * Many shows glamorize violence. TV often promotes violent acts as a fun and effective way to get what you want, without consequences [18]. Even in G-rated, animated movies and DVDs, violence is common—often as a way for the good characters to solve their problems. Every single U. S. animated feature film produced between 1937  and 1999 contained violence, and the amount of violence with intent to injure has increased over the years [19]. * Even â€Å"good guys† beating up â€Å"bad guys† gives a message that violence is normal and okay. Many children will try to be like their â€Å"good guy† heroes in their play. * Children imitate the violence they see on TV.Children under age eight cannot tell the difference between reality and fantasy, making them more vulnerable to learning from and adopting as reality the violence they see on TV [20]. * Repeated exposure to TV violen ce makes children less sensitive toward its effects on victims and the human suffering it causes. * A University of Michigan researcher demonstrated that watching violent media can affect willingness to help others in need [20a]. Read about the study here: Comfortably Numb: Desensitizing Effects of Violent Media on Helping Others. Viewing TV violence reduces inhibitions and leads to more aggressive behavior. * Watching television violence can have long-term effects:   * A 15-year-long study by University of Michigan researchers found that the link between childhood TV-violence viewing and aggressive and violent behavior persists into adulthood [21]. * A 17-year-long study found that teenaged boys who grew up watching more TV each day are more likely to commit acts of violence than those who watched less [22]. * Even having the TV on in the home is linked to more aggressive behavior in 3-year-olds.This was regardless of the type of programming and regardless of whether the child wa s actually watching the TV [23]. What parents can do: * According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, media education can help kids become less susceptible to the bad effects of watching violent TV. Some studies have shown that kids who received media education had less violent behavior after watching violent programs. Teach your kids to be media savvy. Find out more about media literacy. * Watch with your kids, so if the programming turns violent, you can discuss what happened to put it in a context you want your kids to learn. Know what your kids are watching. Decide what programs are appropriate for their age and personality, and stick to your rules. * To minimize peer pressure to watch violent shows, you may want to talk to the parents of your child's friends and agree to similar rules. * Visit YourChild:   Managing Television:   Tips for Your Family for more ideas. For more on TV violence and kids: * Key Facts: TV Violence—a report from the Kaiser Family Foundatio n. * A 1993 summary of some of the research on TV violence and behavior. * Television Violence:   Content, Context, and Consequences. The National Television Violence Study (NTVS). * Television Violence:   A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages—a 1995 70-page report and review of the literature. * Violence in the Media–Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects: Decades of psychological research confirms that media violence can increase aggression. * Comfortably Numb: Desensitizing Effects of Violent Media on Helping Others—This study by a University of Michigan researcher demonstrates that watching violent media can affect willingness to help others in need. Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children:   Congressional Public Health Summit—a statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics, American. Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, American Psychological Association, American Medical Asso ciation, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Psychiatric Association. Can TV scare or traumatize kids? Children can come to view the world as a mean and scary place when they take violence and other disturbing themes on TV to be accurate in real life. Symptoms of being frightened or upset by TV stories can include bad dreams, anxious feelings, being afraid of being alone, withdrawing from friends, and missing school. * Fears caused by TV can cause sleep problems in children [24]. * Scary-looking things like grotesque monsters especially frighten children aged two to seven. Telling them that the images aren't real does not help because kids under age eight can't always tell the difference between fantasy and reality. * Many children exposed to scary movies regret that they watched because of the intensity of their fright reactions. Children ages 8-12 years who view violence are often frightened that they may be a victim of violence or a natural disaster. * Violent threats shown on TV can cause school-aged kids (8-12) to feel fright and worry. When the threat is shown as news it creates stronger fears than when it is shown as fictional [25]. How does watching television affect performance in school? * TV viewing may replace activities that we know help with school performance, such as reading, doing homework, pursuing hobbies, and getting enough sleep. * One research study found that TV's effects on education were long term.The study found that watching TV as a child affected educational achievement at age 26. Watching more TV in childhood increased chances of dropping out of school and decreased chances of getting a college degree, even after controlling for confounding factors [26]. * Watching TV at age four was one factor found to be associated with bullying in grade school [27]. Can TV influence children's attitudes toward themselves and others? Let's take a look at what kids see on TV, and how it can affect their beliefs about race and gender: * Children learn to accept the stereotypes represented on television.After all, they see them over and over. * When non-whites are shown on TV, they tend to be stereotyped. * A review of the research on gender bias shows that the gender-biased and gender-stereotyped behaviors and attitudes that kids see on television do affect how they see male and female roles in our society. * Television and movies do not often show Asians or Asian Americans, and when they do, they fail to show the diversity in Asian American culture [28]. * Thin women are disproportionately represented on TV.The heavier a female character, the more negative comments were made about her [29]. * In 1990's commercials, white men more often were depicted as strong, while white women were shown as sex objects. African American men more often were portrayed as aggressive and African American women, as inconsequential [30]. * Ads for household items, like cleaning products, usually feature women [31]. * G-rated movies ar e commonly viewed by younger children—often over and over on DVD, and perceived by parents as safe for little kids.However, in these movies, whether live action or animated, males are shown more than females, by three to one, they are not often shown in relationships, and do not solve problems peacefully [32]. * In G-movies, characters of color are under-represented, and are usually shown as sidekicks, comic relief, or bad guys. Male characters of color are more aggressive and isolated [33]. * Music videos over-represent black males as aggressors, and white females as victims, compared to actual demographic data [34]. To learn more, visit the Center for Media Literacy's page on Stereotyping and Representation How are children portrayed on TV? A study by a group called Children NOW of how children are shown on local TV news, found that [35]: * Almost half of all stories about children focus on crime (45%). * Children account for over a quarter of the U. S. population but only 10% of all local news stories. * African American children account for more than half of all stories (61%) involving children of color, followed by Latino children (32%).Asian Pacific American and Native American children are virtually invisible on local news. * African American boys are more likely than any other group to be portrayed as perpetrators of crime and violence whereas Caucasian girls are most likely to be shown as victims. Can TV affect my child's health? Yes, TV is a public health issue in several different ways. First of all, kids get lots of information about health from TV, much of it from ads. Ads do not generally give true or balanced information about healthy lifestyles and food choices.The majority of children who watch health-related commercials believe what the ads say. Second, watching lots of television can lead to childhood obesity and overweight. Finally, TV can promote risky behavior, such as trying dangerous stunts, substance use and abuse, and irrespons ible sexual behavior. Children who watch more TV are more likely to be overweight * University of Michigan researchers found that just being awake and in the room with the TV on more than two hours a day was a risk factor for being overweight at ages three and four-and-a-half. [34]   * The effects can carry on into adult weight problems.Weekend TV viewing in early childhood affects body mass index (BMI), or overweight in adulthood. [35] * University of Michigan researchers and their colleagues who investigated whether diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior or television viewing predicted body mass index (BMI) among 3- to 7-year-old children, found that physical activity and TV viewing are most associated with overweight risk. TV was a bigger factor than diet. Inactivity and TV became stronger predictors as the children aged [36]. * Children who watch TV are more likely to be inactive and tend to snack while watching TV. Many TV ads encourage unhealthy eating habits. Two-third s of the 20,000 TV ads an average child sees each year are for food and most are for high-sugar foods. After-school TV ads target children with ads for unhealthy foods and beverages, like fast food and sugary drinks [37, 38]. * All television shows, even educational non-commercial shows, replace physical activity in your child's life. * While watching TV, the metabolic rate seems to go even lower than during rest [39]. This means that a person would burn fewer calories while watching TV than when just sitting quietly, doing nothing. The food and beverage industry targets children with their television marketing, which may include commercials, product placement, and character licensing. Most of the products pushed on kids are high in total calories, sugars, salt, and fat, and low in nutrients [40]. * Children watching Spanish-language TV after school and in the evening see lots of ads for food and drink. Much of it targets kids and most of the ads are for unhealthy foods like sugared drinks and fast food. This advertising may play a role in the high risk of overweight in Latino kids [40a]. Results from recent studies have reported success in reducing excess weight gain in preadolescents by restricting TV viewing [41]. Childhood TV habits are a risk factor for many adult health problems * One study looked at adults at age 26, and how much TV they had watched as children. Researchers found that â€Å"17% of overweight, 15% of raised serum cholesterol, 17% of smoking, and 15% of poor fitness can be attributed to watching television for more than 2 hours a day during childhood and adolescence. †Ã‚   This was after controlling for confounding variables [42]. Children may attempt to mimic stunts seen on TV Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and watching unsafe behavior on TV may increase children's risk-taking behavior. * Kids have been injured trying to repeat dangerous stunts they have seen on television shows. * Many kids watch TV sporting events. Researchers surveyed TV sports event ads to assess what kids might be seeing. Almost half of all commercial breaks during sporting events contained at least one ad that showed unsafe behavior or violence [43]. Watching TV can cause sleep problems * Television viewing is associated with altered sleep patterns and sleep disorders among children and adolescents. Regular sleep schedules are an important part of healthy sleep. A recent study found that infants and toddlers who watch TV have more irregular sleep schedules. More research is needed to find out whether the TV viewing is the cause [44]. * Those sleep disturbances may persist. Teens who watched three or more hours of TV per day had higher risk of sleep problems by early adulthood [45]. * Find out more in this research brief from the Kaiser Family Foundation: Children’s Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. TV viewing may promote alcohol use The presence of alcohol on TV runs the gamut f rom drinking or talking about drinking on prime-time shows, to beer ads, to logos displayed at sporting events. * Many studies have shown that alcoholic drinks are the most common beverage portrayed on TV, and that they are almost never shown in a negative light. * Recent studies have shown that exposure to drinking in movies increases the likelihood that viewers themselves will have positive thoughts about drinking [45a]. * Alcohol has damaging effects on young people’s developing brains—and the damage can be permanent.TV ads are a major factor in normalizing alcohol use in the minds of children, adolescents and college students [46]. * Ads for alcohol portray people as being happier, sexier, and more successful when they drink. Alcohol advertising, including TV ads, contributes to an increase in drinking among youth [47]. * Television ads for alcohol, such as â€Å"alcopop,† which combine the sweet taste of soda pop in a liquor-branded malt beverage, may targe t youth, especially girls and Hispanic and African American kids [47a]. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at Georgetown University found that in 2003, the top 15 prime time programs most popular with teens all had alcohol ads [48]. * Alcohol is increasingly advertised during programs that young people are more likely to watch than people of legal drinking age [49]. Kids who watch TV are more likely to smoke * Even though tobacco ads are banned on TV, young people still see people smoking on programs and movies shown on television. The tobacco industry uses product placement in films.Smoking in movies increased throughout the 1990s [50] . * Internal tobacco industry documents show that the tobacco industry purposefully markets their product to youth. The industry uses subtle strategies like logos at sporting events, product placement, and celebrities smoking to get around the ban on TV advertising for their products [51] . * Kids who watch more TV start smoking at an e arlier age. The relationship between television viewing and age of starting smoking was stronger than that of peer smoking, parental smoking, and gender [52]. Recent research has shown that exposure to smoking in movie characters increases the likelihood that viewers will associate themselves with smoking [52a]. * Find out more about kids and tobacco. Kids get lots of information about sexuality from television * Most parents don't talk to their kids about sex and relationships, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most schools do not offer complete sex education programs. So kids get much of their information about sex from TV. * Kids are probably not learning what their parents would like them to learn about sex from TV. * Sexual content is a real presence on TV.Soap operas, music videos, prime time shows and advertisements all contain lots of sexual content, but usually nothing about contraception or safer sex. * The number of sex scenes on TV has nearly double d since 1998, with 70% of the top 20 most-watched shows by teens including sexual content [53]. Fifteen percent of scenes with sexual intercourse depict characters that have just met having sex. Of the shows with sexual content, an average of five scenes per hour involves sex. * Watching sex on TV increases the chances a teen will have sex, and may cause teens to start having sex at younger ages.Even viewing shows with characters talking about sex increases the likelihood of sexual initiation [54]. (Read more about this study. ) * Watching sexual content on TV is linked to becoming pregnant or being responsible for a pregnancy. Researchers found that even after controlling for other risk factors, the chance of teen pregnancy went up with more exposure to sex on television [55]. * On the flip side, TV has the potential to both educate teens, and foster discussion with parents. Watch with your kids, and use the sexual content on TV as a jumping-off point to talk with your teen about s ex, responsible behavior and safety. To find out more, read: * The American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) Parent Page on Sex, the Media and Your Child * The AAP' s policy statement on Sexuality, Contraception and the Media How can I find out more about kids and TV? Here are some websites with helpful information: * The Smart Parent's Guide to Kid's TV—from the AAP. * Guia para Ver la Television en Familia, a Spanish publication from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). * Guidelines for Rating Children’s Television, a guideline from PBS Ready To Learn. * Pautas para la evaluacion de los programas de television para ninos, the above guideline, in Spanish. Special issues for young children (2-11 years) and Special issues for teens address some developmental issues. * Talking with kids about the news—10 tips for parents. * The Federal Communication Commission's (FCC) page on children's educational TV. Visit these related topics on YourChild: * Managin g Television: Tips for Your Family * Media and Media Literacy * Video Games * The Internet * Obesity * Sleep Problems * Reading What are some organizations that work on issues around kids and TV? * The Center for Media Literacy believes in empowerment through education—that kids need to learn how to think critically about TV and other media. Media Awareness Network is a Canadian group with a wealth of information for parents. * The Center for Screentime Awareness sponsors National TV Turn-Off Week each year. Future TV Turn-Off Weeks are in Spring and Fall: April 19-25, 2010 & September 19-25, 2010. TV-Turnoff Week is supported by over 70 national organizations including the American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, National Education Association, and President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. References Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, RN. Reviewed by Brad Bushman, PhD

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Burlington Norhtern- The Ares Decision Essay

The purpose of management in sectors of an economy and control systems is to achieve goals and objectives of an organization with ease and at least cost. The ultimate purpose of any system is that it should be â€Å"in control† rather than â€Å"controlling people† (Simons 2000). Systems which are in ‘perfect control’ other than controlling them show profound differences between the two concepts and the ability to achieve their goals with ease. Both the internal and external environments impact an organization control structure. There are four paradigms that forms the framework around which the theme of understanding of controls is built (Simons 2000)In the first paradigm is one that enables organization to adapt themselves to their environment knowing what they want and how to achieve it with ease,. When an organization decides what they want, the process is referred to as part of control system. The process would either be based towards centralization or decentralization. Purpose would be, to effectively adapt to the changing environment. When an organization is able to identify and discover the best strategies and instruments of control, it is headed towards success. (pp 2) The second paradigm of the control system comprehensively covers the activities and behavior of top management levels of the organization (described as management controls), process (operational control) and task or transactional control; at the Grass-Root level (pg 3). The paradigm emphasizes on the integration at the board levels of the management team (management controls) The third paradigm explores the explicitly democratic and participative styles of management due to the growth in the field of information technology and knowledge management. This has resulted in research on management control and its relationship with strategic management. The paradigm deals with coordinating control systems with self control and designing and implementing systems for controlling the not-so-sincere people. The fourth paradigm deals with the adaptive theory of human behavior. Simons assumes that human beings want to contribute, achieve innovate and work competently even though they do not want to have specific external inducements to be so. Generation and implementation of adaptive control strategies are quite capable by human beings. This can be achieved through mutual consolation without an external force t make them fall in like and work for the organization. Everybody doing a business or government owned organization are looking for growth. Sufficient profit is thus essential to support market expectations. The problem arises when the top management pushes too hard for profit and does not have the right controls in places. In such cases employees may start to do dumb things like misusing revenues or making unethical decisions. In response to the above the company should therefore employ all sorts of controls. It should also be noted that if they go overboard in that same direction, the businesses will risk becoming internally focuses loosing growth power. This forms the basis of our paper in which we shall discuss the variety of forces in a business and to maintain the ultimate challenge. The Burlington Northern Rail Road (BN) was created in 1970 by the merger of four rail roads, Chicago Burlington and Quincy railroad; Northern pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, and the Spokane; Portland and Seattle Railway Co. In 1980 another railway the ST. Louis-San Francisco Railway co. (Frisco) was acquired and merged into BN- (oligopoly watch 2003). BN decision to delay to deploy the ARES was as a result of perhaps because of the high price tag associated with the system wide application. The â€Å"Amtra Ares† would benefit the Burlington Northern by working an advanced train control system. Passengers would benefit with on time improvement in performance, reductions in running time and continuous communication for increased services reliability. The Ares deployment would cause a vast improvement in the management on safety of trains on any given rail. It enables the railroad to determine the exact location of train. If implemented ARES will permit an additional capacity on rail lines and better enable trains to be dispatched faster. In addition the technology will also permit timely monitoring of the mechanical conditions of equipment. (Oligopoly watch briefs 2003) The company also faces major competition form other established rails in US and therefore the industry profitability depends on porters five forces model for likely profitability. As porter (2005) a business has to understand the dynamics of its industries and markets in order to compete effectively in the market place. He contends that the competitive environment is created by the interaction of the five different forces acting on a business. (Bowman and Davviney 1997) The original competitive forces as proposed by porter, identified forces which would impact on an organization’s behavior in a competitive market. The analysis focused on the following areas:- †¢ The rivalry between existing sellers in the market †¢ The impact of the suppliers on the sellers †¢ The potential threat of new sellers entering the market. †¢ The threat of substantial products becoming available in the market. †¢ The power that is exerted by the customers in the market. The analysis are well illustrate in table in Appendix I DEGREE OF RIVALRY The Company faces major competition from other railway operators and means of transport. Rivalry determines the extent to which the value created by an industry will be dissipated through head-to-head competition. The concentration of alternative means of transport in the region seem to be a factor that affecting the effectiveness of the industry. ( High Beam Encyclopedi) †¢ The nature of the cost of transport should be variable in order to attract ore travelers to use that means of transport. †¢ The capacity of the rail should be considered by the management to accommodate more people and goods. †¢ They should also focus of market growth to increase competition and this shows their stability. †¢ In terms of operation and customer service their mode should be different from other lines in operation. THE THREAT OF ENTRY Porters admit that both potential and existing competitors influence average industry profitability. This threat is usually based on the market entry barriers. Entry barriers exist when it is difficult to economically operate for an outside in an industry already saturated with incumbents. The company faces loss threats from other competitors in terms of economics of scale. The benefits derived from such operation is worth noting and can be utilized to keep the company making other contracts in to industry faces challenges and barriers such as cost of entry, distribution channels and may lack differentiation. THREATS OF SUBSTITUTE When a company is faced by the threat of substitute products that pose to its profitability; it will depend on the relative price-to-performance ratios on the different types of services or products that the customer can turn to satisfy his basic needs. †¢ The company should know that there are major alternatives to rail transport and that customers can use other means eg. Air and road. †¢ The threat of switching out should also be discovered as a factor that can affect their competitiveness in that these costs are incurred when retaining, retooling and redesigning when a customer switches to a different mode of transport. †¢ The company should be sensitive on their pricing system which should be in tandem or cheaper with other alternatives. †¢ When designing substitutes of their own such as luxury coaches they should consider if they can do without it other than adding extra costs. BUYER POWER Buyer power influences the appropriation of the value created by an industry/company. The concentration of customers and size determines the buyer power. Other factors depend on how the company has marketed itself to the customers and differentiation of the competitors. The company poses credible threat of backward integration form the travelers who are their frequent customers. They should focus much on their maintaining the customers’ base through service improvement. The declining number of customers also does not frequent the route, their bargaining power towards the company falls means of attracting them back should be developed. SUPPLIER POWER This typically focuses on the relative size and concentration of companies offering similar services to the industry participants and degree of differentiation. The ability of a company to charge customers different prices in line with different in the value created indicates that there is high supply of services with low supply power For the supply power of Northern railway to exist the company should: †¢ Maintain their brand name power in recognizable in the market. †¢ Create different values in services offered with different prices. †¢ Able to counter any increasing threat of forward integration that wills an increasing number of travelers. †¢ Ensure that the customer is well informed of his services. †¢ The merger of the four companies is a strong point they should maintain. Case #2 Burlington industry must capitalize on the stability and management control it has instituted over the years it has been in operations. Also begin planning and reporting by business line and should identify activities and functions that led themselves to competition. This is because the company faces a serious problem when it comes to regulating the railway transport. Use of technologies such as ARES should be encouraged by this company. The following measures as stated above cn help them to solve this internal problems. 1. Management control They should try to reinforce what they already have accomplished over the years. Substantial structural and operating changes can result in increased stability, expense control and an effective program of capital reinvestment. The restructuring effort should:- †¢ Reduce management levels clarify roles played by authority and enhance accountability. †¢ Should have regular reporting. †¢ Control budget †¢ Focus on its core duty of passenger rail service. 2. Planning and reporting by business line Accountability in their financial transactions is one major factor they should consider. Transparency should be provided along the companies operating profile to facilitate management and god policy decision. In infrastructure management good technology like ARES which can help them control traffic should be deployed. Such structures would bring a different dimension which not only focuses on the cost of each line of operation but the mission, goals and market opportunities associated with the company. The management accountability should go hand in hand with the performance for each business line and this includes on time performance and customer service. 3. Advance Competition The utimage goal of Northern rail line should be to focus on maintaining a vibrant passenger rail system with a competitive supply of service industry and delivery. This objective should be supported through †¢ The development of an activity based analytical capabilities that elatify the cost of individual business lines. †¢ By enhancing the carrying out a comprehensive review and implementation of operating efficiencies. 4. The company should focus on delivering services in a cost effective manner as possible. They should also identify opportunities for revenue advancement and savings. This can be achieved through: †¢ Embracing innovation, marketing and pricing strategies. †¢ Creating flexible work rule that will enhance operational efficiency while maintaining service quality. †¢ Timely scheduling of departure and arrivals to reduce cost. †¢ Invest in technology such as ARES that will improve productivity, help solve internal problems and failures. 5. Customer service and time performance. In order for the company to have an even customer service it should focus on the following:- †¢ Develop a highly skilled, service oriented workforce which has the capacity to interact well with customers. †¢ Create timely dispatch and arrival times which will avoid congestion. †¢ Evaluate on areas where improved customer care can be achieved at a lower cost through outsourcing of services. Case # 3 The future on the success of Burlington Northern rail depends upon its inputs form the high traffic volumes, higher revenues yields while ensuring operating capacity is sufficient to match demand and lowered unit costs. They therefore need or are obligated to address these issues in grater details superior performance will only flow if the company gets better at managing new care competencies like pricing, capacity, networks and schedules. In addition o making improvements in general productivity the company should have better cost management by addressing this cost disparities in comparison with other transport modes. Burlington should move from a constraint driven environment to a market driven one with an aim of capturing and retaining the market share. This will be achieved if they offer excellent services to customers and ensure that resources are used properly. Failure to comply with such minor issue will push them out of business as they lose market share. Case # 4 The advanced Railway electric system (ARES) is important if implemented would address traffic and increase yield through market planning and scheduling technology. The increase operating would lower operating cost. The management science techniques as they are called are being used for queuing, decision, information, statistics as well as stimulation, operation research and linear programming. The new approach for planning and re-configuring rail networks are opening up key opportunities and major savings. To maintain a competitive advantage the company should aim at developing high speed rail networks and advanced scheduling though ARES a key factor in matching out to demand. The increase in demands calls for an effective system to build schedules to meet the changing demand, both constraint driven and market driven criteria. The system makes it possible to choose between all alternatives and find best arrangements tailored to meet the organizations conditions. If Burlington does not implement ARES it is faced with and impending threat on traffic as the railway scheduling is becoming more and more complex. They will not be able to meet the changing demand and because of this they cannot maximize profits as there will be increased operational costs. Being able to find the best technology like ARES in such a difficult choice environment is a strong competitive advantage.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Celebrity Endorsement in India Essay

In India, celebrities are idolized as Gods and marketers have been trying their best to tap on this emotional connect of the people with the celebrities. Today, most of the popular brands are being endorsed by a famous personality either from entertainment industry or sports arena. Strategic brand positioning and effective communication are the keys to success in today’s market where many brands compete in the same category for the market share. Companies are employing their maximum might to promote their brands and occupy a long lasting image in the minds of the consumers. In India, television is the most popular and effective means of the mass communication. There are over three million television commercials being aired every year. However, 80 percent of them are forgotten by the people in a day or two. So, it is imperative for the marketers to ensure that their ad campaign stands out amongst the crowd (Suhalka, n.d.). Since advertising is a highly critical tool for luring customers to make purchases, Indian firms are investing millions of rupees on celebrity advertising (Khatri, 2006). Celebrity endorsements are also an easy option for Indian marketers because of the disparities of the Indian consumer base in terms of religion, ethinicity, value system and most importantly economic variations. Therefore, advertisers in India emphasis a lot on brand recall and customer persuasion for differentiating their ad campaigns from those of the counterparts. It is here that celebrity endorsement provides a tremendous boost (Surana, 2008). For instance, one of the strongest celebrity endorser is cricketer Sachin Tendulkar who is a youth icon and endorses many successful brands like, Pepsi, Boost, Aviva Life Insurance, TVS, Britannia Biscuits, Visa, Airtel etc. Like, Shahrukh Khan, Amitabh Bac hchan, Kareena Kapoor also have many brands in their kitties. Indians love their celebrities and blindly follow their suit. This has proved to be a boon for the marketers and celebrity endorsement is just getting better by the day. It has now become an indispensible part of the marketing communication strategy. It is a win ?win situation for both the celebrities and the brands. However, the consumers are ones who are least benefitted as they end up paying more for the products and services. References: †¢ Khatri, P., 2006. Celebrity Endorsement: A Strategic Promotion Perspective. Indian Media Studies Journal, 1(1).Pp. 25-37 †¢ Suhalka,G.n.d. Celebrity Endorsers and Endorsements in India- The Rise and the Impact [pdf] Available at: [Accessed 18 February 2012] †¢ Surana,R., 2008. The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in India [pdf] Available at: [Accessed 18 February 2012] Commentary | Theses | Dissertations | Journals & Articles | Proposals & Synopsis | Essays | Promotional Writing | Press Release Copyright  © 2005 – 2012 Project Guru India. All rights reserved.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Are Bonus Schemes an Effective Way of Motivating Employees Essay

Are Bonus Schemes an Effective Way of Motivating Employees - Essay Example The definite development of interest in employee motivation can be traced back by about a hundred years to the beginning of the twentieth century, when in essence behavioural scientists studied the behaviour and the response to stimuli, with particular emphasis on material benefits derived from work, for the initial studies had led to the belief that workers increased their effort, based on the monetary benefits received. This led to material benefits and its impact on employee motivation becoming the focus of studies and the basis of motivational action within business environments during approximately fifty years of the history of employee motivation (Latham, 2006). 2. Literature Review Several content and process theories on work motivation have emerged from the efforts put in by work motivational theorists, leading to the requirement of further classification in any study of work motivational studies. This classification is based on human behaviour and that which underlies human motivation in the form of needs, reinforcement, cognition, job characteristics and feelings or emotions (Ramlall, 2004). In 1954, the behavioural scientist Maslow published his theory in motivation called Maslow’s need hierarchy theory or the hierarchy of needs theory. In this theory Maslow postulates that the main driver in human behaviour is the satisfaction of an individual’s needs and he categorised these needs consisting of physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs and put them into five levels (Halepota, 2005). Incentive schemes in business organizations are set up with the purpose of enhancing performance through meeting the needs of the employees. The success of incentive schemes would be high or low depending on the personal context of the employee. In the case of employees at the lower levels of Maslow’s need hierarchy cash rewards by itself act as a means to meeting these basic needs, Those at the highe r levels of Maslow’s need hierarchy may require in addition to cash rewards other rewards, which we could term as ‘satisfaction income’ in terms appreciation, interesting work, freedom at the work and empowerment for satisfaction at the work place. Such rewards have to be fair and irrespective of the various other aspects of motivation at the workplace cash rewards still remain a key incentive for employee performance (Rai, 2004). Kauhanen and Piekkola, 2006, evaluating the motivational effects of performance-related pay schemes and bonus schemes on upper white collar employees in Finland found several important features. Among these features was the finding that for performance-related pay schemes and bonus schemes, the levels of these schemes should be high and frequent enough for positive motivational effects. Lower levels of performance-related pay schemes and bonus schemes do not bring about the desired increase in motivational levels for higher performance behaviour (Kauhanen & Piekkola, 2006) Human relations practices are important to organizational performance

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Finance study case Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Finance - Case Study Example the projected ratios provided by the executive management of the firm vary as between the ratios projected as calculated from the historical information in the firm’s books of accounts e.g. the profit margin provided as 6.1% against the computed 6.28% figure and the earnings per share ratio provided as 1.06% against the computed figure of 1.78%. This has an imbalance effect amounting to $0.18M on the pro forma balance sheet of the firm. a) The proportionality test holds it is true that total assets increase in the same ratio, as it is evident in the data provided. The total assets in the year 1991 are 12m$ that when compared with the sales for the same year it is realized that it is half the sales, which implies that sales for the same year is 24m$. Therefore, the proportionality ratio is two. Taking the sales for the year 1992 which is 28.8m $ compared to total assets which is 14.4m $ it implies the same ratio has been maintained. Checking the other sales for the other three subsequent years compared to the total assets it can be summarized from the data the financial increment in assets is two per dollar. The graph below show a straight line graph implying an equal proportionality in the total assets and sales. From the graph, an equation is derived y=2x meaning that for every total asset there is twice sales made. From the regression analysis the proportionality test holds but not with the same ratio. This can be witnessed from the graph above. The financial increment ratio is approximately 1.4m per dollar. For any data to be directly proportionally with an exact ratio, the resultant graph always bears a straight line. c) The later situation holds for most companies or firms because the first condition assumes other financial factors. It is only in a perfect condition that firms’ sales will perfectly be proportional to the total sales in every financial year. Its implication if one uses the percentage of sales method is that sales compared to assets will

Discuss changes and similarities in Roman Republic art and Essay

Discuss changes and similarities in Roman Republic art and architecture as opposed to Roman Imperial art and architecture - Essay Example This research aims to evaluate and present one feature which is noticeable from the Republican period of Roman art. This is the tendency to imitate Greek models of sculpture. Hellenist artists were much admired by the Romans, not just in sculpture but also in literature, music and all kinds of arts and crafts. In sculpture this influence can be seen very clearly in the muscular, semi-naked bodies and the static poses which exude a sublime and noble authority: â€Å"Critics are united in acknowledging the enormous debt owed to Greece by all branches of Roman art.† A good example of the way that Romans imitated Greek culture in the early days of the Republic can be seen in the statue of Diaoumenos which is a marble copy of a Greek bronze. The different material makes it somewhat stiffer and more formal than the bronze original must have been, but it shows a similar preoccupation with physical prestige. Vergil’s account of the early history of Rome contains an illuminating passage on the differing value systems that existed between Greeks and Romans. Anchises says: â€Å"Others will cast their breathing figures more tenderly in bronze and bring more lifelike portraits out of marble. Roman, remember by your strength to rule earth’s peoples for your arts are to be these: to pacify, to impose the rule of law to spare the conquered, battle down the proud.† This suggests that the emphasis for Romans may have been more on the symbolism of power and authority that these statues conveyed, than appreciation of the physical beauty of the piece. There are also technical differences in the way that the Romans adapted Greek techniques and styles. Jackson points out that the Roman funerary rights often involved the production of realistic death masks, from which also portraits in three dimensional marble could be made later, and explains the verism of late republican portrait statues as being partly derived from this tradition: â€Å"the death mask emphasizes the construction of the face and skull, whilst Hellenistic art shows more concern for the plastic rendition of muscle and for the surface detail generally.†

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Industrialization of Europe 1780-1914 Essay

The Industrialization of Europe 1780-1914 - Essay Example Industrialization shares close relation with both economic development and economic growth but the concepts are not the same. Kuznets termed it as the modern economic epoch. The process of economic growth involved the association or interaction of four factors namely population, resources, institutions as well as technology. The process of interaction between the factors determines the outcome of the process but the variation of possible outcomes is infinite. During the process of industrialization in the nineteenth century several factors played many different roles at different times (Henderson, 1969). The era of industrialization brought improvements in the standards of living of the society, new wealth on the hands of the population and a transformation from agricultural productivity to urbanization and upgraded standards of health. Technology consisted of the inventions that contributed in the process of production. Such innovation transformed the way production took place. The inventions of new machines like cotton gin, power loom contributed in production of large quantities. In the era of industrialization there was rapid demand for cotton and the demand surpassed the supply in the market creating the condition for excess demand. The demand could not be served if spinning machines were not invented. Industrialization increased urbanization in the continent. The cities in the nineteenth century became the places of manufacturing. Immigration into the industrial cities took place at a rapid rate as jobs were available in this part of the continent. The urbanization achieved raped rate before the planning process got implemented and therefore few challenges regarding social security aroused. The environmental problems coupled with overcrowding caused the challenges to become more hazardous. Industrialization transformed the social structure. As commerce and industry developed there was development of middle class locally referred as bourgeoisie. During the process of industrialization the middle class gained political power and social respect. Ultimately new elite of social class evolved and they were refereed as wealthy bourgeois. The human labor began to be replaced by machines. The use of steam engine was the benchmark for producing textiles. Commercial revolution, price revolution, and the cottage industry are regarded as the roots of industrialization. The commercial revolution brought about exploration age. The price revolution contributed in stimulating the production process as the producers can now get more money for their goods. There was rise in the capitalism structure as the surplus money began to circulate in the investment ventures. The middle class acted as the leaders in economic revolution. Trading as well as manufacturing brought wealth to the bourgeois (Cameron, 1985). Research objective The objective of the research is to analyze the effects of industrialization in the continent of Europe. It is believed that ind ustrialization brought in improvements in the stands of living of the society and therefore the blessings on industrial revolution helped the continent to advance into one of the developed parts of the world. The time period under consideration for the research is 1780 to 1914. Research questions The research

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Time Value of Money Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Time Value of Money - Research Paper Example Calculation regarding future values of present values is extremely important when making important investment decisions (Andrew, 1997). A manager who would be uncertain of what would be the future value of his investment today, he would be uncertain whether to take on the investment or not. Suppose, a manager takes on an investment to invest in a bond that will pay him $ 1000 at maturity at 5% interest. How would he value the investment in terms of today? What is explicitly of importance to the manager is that how much the investor should pay today in order to get that $ 1000 principal at maturity (Brealey, 2005). The investor should use the application of time value of money in order to determine whether the amount that the borrower is asking is appropriate or not. Similarly, an investor might want to know that if he deposits a certain sum of money in the bank, then what would be the future value of the payment that he would receive at the relevant interest rate few years from now ( Andrew, 1997). The basic concept I have learnt from this assignment is how to apply the application of time value of money in different situations. Sometimes, we have been given the future value and all information and we had to find the present value, while sometimes we had been given present value and we had to calculate the future value. In summation, I have learnt the practical application and usefulness of time value of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Analysis and Evaluation of Employee Involvement and its Impact on Dissertation

Analysis and Evaluation of Employee Involvement and its Impact on Employee Performance - Dissertation Example Literature Review 6 Critical Evaluation and Analysis of Data 10 Discussion 18 Conclusion 23 References 26 Appendices 29 Project Aim and Objectives The use of employee involvement practices has been evident among organisations across various industries and has also been associated with a number of favorable outcomes including organisational performance (Jones and Kato, 2005). Considerable interest has been demonstrated towards new work systems that emphasize employee involvement owing to perceived increase in performance among workers that such practices may bring about. Furthermore, external pressures that increased competition among companies resulted to these firms reevaluating the processes used for organising their work (Bartell, 2004). As such, while employees have been given more responsibilities, practices have consequently placed more emphasis as well on enabling these workers to take part in the decision making process within the workplace. Companies have also been known to offer incentives that will encourage employees to take responsibility for their work. While employee involvement has been often associated with productivity and employee performance, other studies have also shown how such participation can influence organisational profitability (Addison and Belfield, 2000). Owing to these mixed findings, the current project, therefore, aims to analyze and evaluate how employee involvement can contribute towards effective organizational performance based on a cultural perspective in which employees play a highly significant role. Particularly, this project aims to address two SMART objectives: first is to conduct interviews among 10 employees from BI Worldwide, within 2 weeks at most, whose operations in the United Kingdom operate in Milton Keynes. Second... The study tells as there has been increasing recognition of employees as the best assets of an organisation, there has been attempts to seek ways with which to enhance employees’ contribution to the firm whilst further understanding the effectiveness of human resource systems. If organisations are able to select and retain appropriate employees as well as develop these individuals by means of adequate training and learning opportunities, such knowledge can be utilized as an advantage for achieving favorable performance. It has become a challenge, however, to establish a system that will enable for a mutually beneficial relationship between the organisation and its employees. Human resource policies have been widely taken into consideration along with their effects on organisational performance, such as the effectiveness of employees, and workplace innovation; a number of workplace practices, including employee involvement, have been continuously associated with high levels of employee performance. Therefore, the employment relationship has been recognized as a significant contributing factor to a firm’s long-term success. In addition, current personnel literature may suggest that employee involvement practices may have more observable effects on organisations that employ workers who are highly skilled and knowledgeable. This is because within these companies, tasks and roles are more complex, and the levels of skills required are higher which can translate into these employees having a wider capacity to affect performance.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

A Taste of Honey Essay Example for Free

A Taste of Honey Essay Act two, scene one is an important part of the play because Jo is near the end of her pregnancy and Helen comes back to visit her but only because Geoff had asked her too. Previously in the play Helen had married Peter and had gone to live with him, Jo got engaged to a black boy in the Navy, she became pregnant but he didnt come back after going away with the Navy. Jo didnt have a very good relationship with her mother and they had moved about a lot as Helen ran every time she couldnt pay the rent. Jo met Geoff who is a homosexual. He hasnt had sexual relations with a man but he knows he is gay because he has had liaisons with other men. Jo has left school and was going to work in a pub part-time. The play is A Taste of Honey and I am doing part of Act two scene one where Jo, Helen and Geoff are the main characters. This play is mainly set in Jo and Helens flat where the time is around the 1950s. Helen and Jo werent very well off so the flat is in a poor condition. It is dirty and there is a lot of dust. The house looks like it is uncared for because clothes are on the floor and the bed isnt made. It is a comfortless flat. If I was in the audience I would see the settee in the middle of the flat with Geoffs bedding on it, to the left of the stage would be Jos unmade bed it might have some clothes lying untidily on top of it. To the right I would see the kitchen, the sink full of dirty plates and cups, and there would be lots of things scattered about the kitchen sides. In this section of the play the characters use actions in different ways to portray their emotions and feelings. For example: at the beginning of this section Geoff says Let me kiss you this lets us know that Geoff likes Jo as more then a friend unfortunately she does not feel the same way. This is shown when she struggles as Geoff forces himself on her. Another show of Geoffs feelings towards Jo are when he asks her to marry him, Jo just dismisses the idea and tells Geoff Im not marrying anybody. When Helen arrives she tries to be motherly towards Jo but Jo doesnt really want to know as Helen hasnt really been there for her whilst she has been growing up. I dont think she understands why Helen suddenly wants to be a proper mother so Jo starts an argument by saying what blew you in as soon as Helen comes in to the room. But Helen still tries to by friendly by asking about Geoff, she also tries to change the subject at that point when Jo asks her how she came to know about her pregnancy she replies Come on, arent you going to introduce me to your boy friend? Who is he?. I think at that point Helen hadnt come to argue with Jo and had come to see if she was alright. When Jo and Helen are angry they both speak their mind and tend to shout when arguing. Jo talks in a steady voice and when speaking to Geoff she talks in a soft voice but her voice is stern when she is speaking to Helen as I feel she is resentful towards her. Helen talks to Jo as if she regrets having her and wishes shed aborted her like all the others, in this scene though Helen starts off friendly but finishes by chasing Jo around the room trying to hit her. Geoff is the calm one; he doesnt stand up for himself much but tries to protect Jo. When Geoff is told to do something he does it without complaining. This play is important to theatre history, as it was the first play ever seen about real life and the problems that came with it like poverty, racism, teenage pregnancies and homophobia. This play had them all in. At the time this play was written Britain was just recovering from shortages and rationing, the rationing ended in 1952. Housing was scarce so many people had to live in flats even if they could afford better and bomb sites were still derelict. Shelagh Delaney was the author of this play and she was 19 years old when she wrote it. It was written in 1956 and censorship from the stage was removed in 1963. A Taste of Honey is what you would call a kitchen-sink drama because it is based on real life, problems, poverty and the working class.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Importance of Cell Cultures

Importance of Cell Cultures Introduction Cell culture is an extremely widely used process by which cells are removed from their natural environment and grown artificially under controlled and monitored conditions. It occurs in vitro, or in glass, more specifically in multicellular eukaryotic cells. The cells may be removed from their habitat directly and disaggregated with enzymes or mechanically before harvesting, or they may be a derivative of a cell line that has been created previously. It was adapted from a practice used in the early 1900s and since then it has expanded and advanced research and scientific knowledge enormously. The conditions required for each culture vary, however the artificial environments conditions are consistent. It must consist of a suitable vessel which contains a medium that provides vital nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. Growth factors and hormones are also needed, as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide. It must monitor and regulate physico-chemical environme nt which includes pH and osmotic pressure, as well as temperature. Temperature is kept at 37Â °C, CO2 levels at 5% and humidity at 95%. Cell cultures are an extremely important tool for healthcare scientists. They provide a model system for physiology and biochemistry of selected cells to be studied. By examining their physiology their aging pathway can be studied and their biochemistry allows processes such as metabolic rate to be observed. The cells interaction with drugs could also be observed which proves a useful tool for drug screening programs, clinical trials and pharmaceutical companies. Whatever the purpose for using cell cultures, it is an extremely consistent and reliable process that has good reproducibility of results that can be obtained using a batch of clonal cells. Primary cell cultures are cultures that grow and maintain cells dissociated from their parental tissue via mechanical or enzymatic methods. They can be either adherent or suspension cells. Adherent cells are also known as anchorage dependent cells because they require attachment for growth. These cells are usually derived from organs such as the kidney where they are immobile and implanted into connective tissue. Suspension cells are the opposite and dont require attachment to the culture vessel for growth. These types of cells are anchorage independent cells. They are cells that derive from the blood, where they arent attached to anything but are still suspended e.g. in plasma like lymphocytes. A secondary culture is a primary culture that has been sub-cultured. The sub-culture (passage) occurs when the cells are transferred from a culture vessel to another. This provides fresh nutrients and space for continued growth, because a primary culture has a finite life span. Common primary and secondary lines can be found in Table 1. After the first sub-culture, the culture becomes known as the cell line. Cells only undergo a finite number of replication cycles before cell death. This means that some cell lines will be finite cell lines. However, some cells undergo transformation. This can occur spontaneously but can also be virally induced in vitro. Undergoing transformation gives the cell the ability to divide infinitely, such as HeLa cells. The HeLa line is the oldest and most commonly used continuous cell line. Cervical cancer cells biopsied from Henrietta Lacks in 1951 show that they are remarkably durable and prolific. In 2012, Turner published a paper documenting its importance in the development of the polio vaccine. Table 1: Summary comparison table of cell line examples, their uses and origins Cell Line Original Cells Example paper Henrietta Lack (HeLa) cell line Cervical cancer cells from a biopsy from Henrietta Lacks, first immortalised cell line (Turner, 2012) COS-7 cell line Fibroblast-like cells from African Green Monkey kidney tissue (Vacante et al., 1989) SH-SY5Y cell line Neuroblastoma cells from a biopsy of a 4-year old female TO FIND AND ENTER!!! Hep G2 cell line Hepatocellular carcinoma cells from a biopsy of a 15-year old males liver (Mersch-Sundermann et al., 2004) Jurkat cell line T-lymphocyte cells in the blood of a 14-year old male leukaemia patient (Wang et al., 2012) The COS-7 cell line is a line derived from African green monkey kidney tissue. It is used in research against SV40, a cancer causing virus that was hidden in the polio vaccine (Vacante et al., 1989). The Hep G2 cell line is another continuous cell line of hepatocellular carcinoma. It plays a vital part in the research of human liver diseases by being a model for intracellular trafficking (Mersch-Sundermann et al., 2004). Jurkat cells, another continuous line, are a line of lymphocyte cells used to study leukaemia, T-cell signalling and HIV (Wang et al., 2012). This review will explore the use of cell lines in the laboratory and their applications. SH-SY5Y will be a particular focus, and will explore the application and importance of the cell line as one of the only lines used to study neuronal function and differentiation. SH-SY5Y cell line SH-SY5Y cells are a derivative cell line used majorly in scientific research. SH-SY5Y originally was cloned from a biopsy of bone marrow derived line called SK-N-SH, and then named as SH-SY. The biopsy was from a 4-year old female with neuroblastoma. This was subcloned again to make SH-SY5 and subcloned once more to form SH-SY5Y. Because this cell line has been derived from a primary source, it is a secondary culture. There is new, fresh growth medium in which the cells are suspended not attached, making them anchorage-independent cells in the cell line. They have been widely used since the 1980s, due to their ability to express dopaminergic markers and neuronal function such as neurodegenerative processes. Because of these characteristics, they play a major role in the research of Parkinsons disease. As mentioned before, the cells are subcloned. This process of sub-culturing is also known as cell passaging. Cell passaging is where a new microbiological culture is created by transferring a sample, or all, of a cell culture to a different growth medium. This process prolongs the life of the organism, renews depleted nutrient levels and also increases the concentration of cells in the culture. Cells cannot be held in their primary culture indefinitely because continual cell activity means there will be a gradual rise in toxic metabolites. For SH-SY5Y cells, there is a recommended limit of cell passaging. Passage numbers can affect cell physiology and morphology, protein expression and transfection efficiency, so the limit has been set to 20 to prevent unreliable and irreproducible results being collected. Use of SH-SY5Y cell line in research As conferred, SH-SY5Y is one of the only cell lines that can be used as a model system for neuronal function investigation. It is particularly good for investigating the effective of oxidative stress on neuronal cell lysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) at specific concentration are essential for standard cell function however over exposure to ROS is harmful to cells. There are 2 globins whose functions are still unclear. Neuroglobins (NGBs) and cytoglobins (CYGB) role has been suggested to involve detoxifying the effects of over exposure. Excessive ROS has been known to cause cell lysis after ischaemic strokes. By investigating the correct levels and limit levels of ROS it can have an enormous clinical impact on stroke recovery and treatment. Forde et al. investigates the effect of NGB and CYGB on the detoxification of ROS. The influence of cell lysis of surplus ROS is the primary focus, more explicitly hydrogen peroxide. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured at a ratio of 1:1 of Dulbeccos minimum essential medium (DMEM) and Hams F-12 nutrient medium along with 10% foetal bovine serum at 5% CO2 atmosphere. The culture was maintained at 37Â °C in a humidified 95% atmosphere. L-glutamine provided an energy source and sodium bicarbonate acts as a pH buffer. Growth factors and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) are also present and standard factors. In the culture, penicillin and streptomycin are the selected antibiotics used. The pathogen cell membranes are broken down to prevent infection. In cell lines cross contamination can be rife, so using antibiotics prevents this and induced recombinant protein expression. Apart from preventing the obvious infection risk, if there is contamination there will be unreliable and inaccurate results. However, antibiotic resistance means that there may always be a level of low contamination. The prolonged use means antibiotics are only used where absolutely necessary so that it p revents these problems, such as in initial cell lines to prevent contaminated cells being carried on in sub cultures and protecting stock solutions. Methods and Materials After SH-SY5Y had been cultured, they then were transfected. NGB and CYGB plasmids were transfected with SH-SY5Y by nucleofectin. Nucelofectin is a transfection method that requires the use of electrode force to administer specific voltage. Reagents and electrodes produce the conditions required for transfection, which increases the permeability of the target cell. This allows the genetic material present in the culture to transfect into the globin plasmids. This is a reliable mechanism and produces good rates of success. After transfection, the globins were fused with the GFP gene by PCR-amplification. The NGB to CYGB region was amplified and digested with restriction enzymes. Ligation was then performed directly after in to PEGFP-N1 vectors. The culture cells were briefly re-suspended in nucelofactor solution and nueclofected with 2ÃŽ ¼g of plasmid DNA, producing a final result of NgbN1-pEGFP and CygbN1-pEGFP fusion proteins. These produce a yield of 40% eFP positive cells. The PCR identified the expression To examine the success of the transformation, PCR determined the expression of the globins. PCR measures the expression by recording the amount of mRNA present before and after amplification. For reactions involving GFP, fluorophene is added to act as a marker and signal upon excitation. Upon examination, over a 12 hour period there was upregulation 12 hours after transfection, meaning the globins were transfected successfully. This examination isnt thorough enough to provide evidence of success. A western blot was performed to ensure thorough examination. Protein expression can be detected by electrophoresing the proteins through a 10% polyacrimide gel. The proteins were transferred on to a western blot by being electroblotted to an Immobilon P membrane. After staining with primary polyclonal antibodies they were incubated with a secondary antibody, and probed for antibodies upon completion with Supersignal West Pico Chemiliminescent substrate. Figure 1 displays the result of the western blot.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Management Principles in the Construction Industry

Management Principles in the Construction Industry Task 1 Management Techniques (1.1, 1.2, 1.3) Define and attribute three established definitions of management Fredrick Taylor observed that workers were often working beneath their potential and he designed a four stage method to overcome this problem; Break the job into its smallest elements Select the most qualified employees to do the job and train them to do it. Monitor the employees to ensure that they follow the prescribed methods. Continue in this way, but only use the employees that perform the work well. In 1911, Taylor published principles of scientific management in which he described methods of work designed to increase productivity. Many studies were performed at the Bethlehem steel company in Pittsburgh where he examined the time and motion details of work operations. He developed better methods for performing specific tasks and trained the workers to perform them. In one experiment he increased the output of a worker loading pig iron onto a rail car. He broke the task down into its smallest operations, timing each one with a stopwatch. The task was then redesigned, reducing the number of movements as well as the effort required and the potential sources of error. Work breaks were introduced at specific intervals for a specified duration and a differential pay scale was also used to improve the production rate. The workers output rate increased from 12 to 47 tons per day! Taylor was known as the father of scientific management. Frank (1868 to 1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth The Gilbreths, a husband and wife team, developed ways to increase workers output. They believed that it was possible to design work methods whose durations could be estimated in advance, rather than using time studies based on observation. One of his studies related to bricklaying. He filmed all of the required movements to perform the task. This enabled him to determine the tasks that made up each stage of the process. As a result, he designed and patented special scaffolding to reduce the amount of bending and reaching. This changed an 18 stage process into a five stage process, increasing productivity by around 200%. The Gilbreths defined motion study as breaking work down into its fundamental elements, studying the elements both separately and both in relation to each other so as to minimise waste. They defined time study as a scientific analysis of methods and equipment used for a task, development of the best way of doing it and determination of the time required to perform it. Frank Gilbreth is known as the father of time and motion studies. Administrative Management Administrative management considers the running of the total organisation. Some of the major contributors are: Henri Fayol (1841 to 1925) was a French engineer. Fayol was the first to distinguish the four management functions: Planning Organising Leading Controlling Fayol was known as the father of modern management His principles of management included, division of work, authority and responsibility, discipline and order, unity of command and direction, subordination of individual interests to general goals, job security and remuneration of personnel. Max Weber (1864 to 1920) was a German sociologist and economist Weber outlined the concept of bureaucracy. He saw bureaucracy as the most logical and appropriate structure for large organisations. Bureaucracies are based on authority which comes from law, procedures, rules, etc. He believed that efficiency in bureaucracies comes from: Hierarchical structure Clearly defined and specialised job functions Use of strict and systematic rules and procedures Appointment of employees to job based and technical expertise Promotions of employees based on competence Clearly defined career paths His work is the foundation of contemporary organisation theory. Mary parker Follett (1868 to 1933) was an American lecturer and management consultant Follets concepts included: The universal goal The universal goal of organisations is an integration of individual effort into that of the whole company. The universal principle The universal principle involves reciprocal response emphasising feedback to the sender, ( the concept of two way communication). The law situation The law of the situation emphasises that there is not a single best way of doing anything, but that it all depends on the situation. Behavioural orhuman relationsManagement, which appeared in the 1920s, dealt with the human aspects of the organisations. Initially, it was a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical theories of management. Behavioural research began with the Hawthorne studies which were conducted between 1924 and 1933 at the Hawthorne plant of the western electric company in Cicero, Illinois by Elton Mayo and his colleagues. Elton Mayo (1880 to 1949) Mayo believed that work satisfaction depends more on working conditions and attitudes than on the level of remuneration. He rejected Taylorism and that work should be considered as a group activity. He proposed that workers needed recognition of their efforts and tnat a sense of belonging was more important than the physical working conditions. Mayo identified the Hawthorne effect. This is the bias that occurs when people know that they are being observed. The Hawthorne studies The Hawthorne studies included the Illumination experiments. The aim of these studies was to investigate the effect of operating conditions on productivity. Illumination experiments were carried out to establish whether better lighting conditions would lead to increased productivity. It was found that employees productivity increased whether the light were turned up or down. However, the increased productivity was found to be a result of the attention received by the group, not the working conditions. Another study found that employees do not work as fast as they can when they are being paid piece rate wages. Instead, they will perform informally to a level set by the group. The conclusion was that there was no direct cause and effect between operating conditions and productivity. Worker attitude and peer pressure was found to be more important. 1.2  Explain the principles and processes of management: forecasting The Principles and forecasting of Management Principles of Management The principles are; To command Maintain the activity among the personnel. Forecasting To be able to predict the outcomes of business behaviour or industry sector through the use of experience, qualification or with the use of statistics or other previous records. (The go to place for management) Forecasting is an effective practice use as a starting point for management planning and decision making. General types of forecasting include trend examination, regression analysis, Delphi technique, time series analysis, correlation, exponential smoothing, and input-output analysis. Daily business planning Planning is an incredibly effective way for managers to stay focused on achieving their own goals and the goals of the organization for which they represent. Organising Build up the structure, both material and human, of the undertaking. Motivating To encourage and inspire other to carry out tasks or jobs to be completed and maintain momentum or the working pace of the operatives. Controlling Seeing that everything occurs in conformity with established rule and expressed command. Coordinating Binding together, unifying and harmonizing all activity and effort. Communicating Henri Fayol published 14 principles of management these principles are: (Fayol) Division of Work. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously improve his skills. Thereby he can be more productive. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management play their part by providing good leadership. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan. This is essential to ensure unity and coordination in the enterprise. Unity of command does not exist without unity of direction but does not necessarily flow from it. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). Management must see that the goals of the firms are always paramount. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. But lateral communication is also fundamental, as long as superiors know that such communication is taking place. Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. It should not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. The former minimizes lost time and useless handling of materials. The latter is achieved through organization and selection. Equity. In running a business a combination of kindliness and justice is needed. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. An insecure tenure and a high rate of employee turnover will affect the organization adversely. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of personal vanity on the part of many managers. Esprit de Corps. Management must foster the morale of its employees. He further suggests that: real talent is needed to coordinate effort, encourage keenness, use each persons abilities, and reward each ones merit without arousing possible jealousies and disturbing harmonious relations. 1.3  Identify the motivational needs of individuals and groups, leadership styles and concepts of team working. Motivational Needs Organization of goals, function within addition to ideals among employees, teams and company is the generally essential part of motivation. The better the arrangement and personal union with organizational aim, the healthier the podium for incentive. Anywhere persons find it hard to support and unite with the organizational aims, and then mainly motivational ideas and actions will have a reduced level of success. Motivation is a difficult subject. It differentiates for each person. Motivational receptivity and potential in everyone differs from day to day, from situation to situation. Get the alignment and values right, and motivational methods work out better. Motivational methods of every sort will not work if some people or organisations are not aligned. People are more interested or gravitate towards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed. People want more. Motivational and inspirational quotes, poems, posters, motivational speakers and stories, team building games and activities, all develop employee motivation for sales and business staff in all kinds of organizations. Motivational and inspirational experiences improve employees attitudes, confidence and performance. Leadership styles Charismatic Leadership Charismatic Leaders use a wide range of methods to manage their image and, if they are not naturally charismatic, may practice assiduously at developing their skills. They may engender trust through visible self-sacrifice and taking personal risks in the name of their beliefs. They will show great confidence in their followers. They are very persuasive and make very effective use of body languageas well as verbal language. Participative Leadership A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team. The question of how much influence others are given thus may vary on the managers preferences and beliefs, and a whole spectrum of participation is possible, as in the table below. Situational leadership The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactionalor transformationalmethods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behaviour as much as it does follower behaviour. Transactional Leadership The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place. The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinates manager) gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding). Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker. The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon. In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision. The quiet Leader The approach of quiet leaders is the antithesis of the classic charismatic(and often transformational) leaders in that they base their success not on ego and force of character but on their thoughts and actions. Although they are strongly task-focused, they are neither bullies nor unnecessarily unkind and may persuade people through rational argument and a form of benevolent Transactional Leadership. Servant Leadership It is easy to dismiss servant leadership as soft and easy, though this is not necessarily so, as individual followers may be expected to make sacrifices for the good of the whole, in the way of the servant leader. The focus on the less privileged in society shows the servant leader as serving not just their followers but also the whole of society. Servant leadership is a natural model for working in the public sector. It requires more careful interpretation in the private sector lest the needs of the shareholders and customers and the rigors of market competition are lost. Task 2 Leading by Example (2.1, 2.5, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5) 2.1  Describe in outline the main markets, activities and services provided by the construction and built environment sector. The Main Markets New build Housing The housing market is the supply and demandfor homes, normally in a particular country or county, a primary element of the housing market is the average house prices and activity in house prices. The availability of housing and the amount of housing stock fluctuates house prices sectors include the rented sector. Buy to let investment and the requirement from tenants, government intervention controls and Influences the Housing market Interest rates also influence the cost of erratic mortgages market conditions and mortgage activity, plays an important part in whether people are eligible for mortgages financial progress, incomes and unemployment rates population and geographic trends also have influences in this market place The UK Housing Market is habitually unpredictable because of a variety of factors. The UK Housing market often has influence over wider economy. E.g. when house prices are decreasing, consumer spending tends to fall because the housing market always dictates for the economy and individual homeowners, it is essential to try and predict or foresee the future movements in the housing market. Industrial Commercial Markets This industry consists of units generally occupied in the construction and development of commercial and industrial non-residential buildings. This category also consists of elements occupied in carrying out additions, alterations or renovations or general repairs or remodelling to commercial and industrial buildings or in organising or managing the construction. Establishments mainly engaged in the construction of institutional non-residential buildings such as schools hospitals and other government buildings. Infrastructure Markets The general dependable systemsof a community or countries population, including utilities, water, sewage, roads, etc. These systems are considered paramount for enabling growthin an economy. Building and developing an infrastructure often requires huge investment, but the economies of scaletend to be significant. 2.5  Define and explain the application of a mission statement, strategy, corporate planning, policy and objectives to the activities of a practice or firm A mission statement is a formal short statement of the purpose of a company or organisation. The mission statement should guide the actions of the organisation, spell out its overall goal, provide a sense of direction, and guide decision making. It provides the framework or context within which the companys strategies are formulated. Historically it is associated with Christian religious groups; indeed, for many years a missionary was assumed to be a person on a specifically religious mission. The word mission dates from 1598, originally of Jesuits sending members abroad. Corporate planning Corporate planning is the continuas process of making present risk-taking decisions systematically and with the greatest knowledge of their futurity; organising systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions, and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectations through organised, systematic feedback. Planning at the highest level in an organisation, involving an analysis of the current situation, the setting of objectives, the formulation of strategies and tactics, implementation and evaluation. 4.3  Describe what is meant by multi discipline non adversarial working in project teams (Lathem Report). Multi discipline means a person firm of group offering multiple disciplines in which they specialize. If a task requires more than one type of specialist/function, it requires multi-disciplined group or person. Non- adversarialmeans there is a spirit of co operation, a passive stance, the parties are willing to reach a mutually satisfying resolution to a problem. There is persuasion rather than coercion. The Lathem report The Lathem report was an influential report written by sir Michael Lathem. Commissioned by the United Kingdom Government and industry to review procurement and contractual arrangements in the construction industry. It tackled the most controversial issues facing the industry during a period of lapse in growth as a whole. The Lathem report of July 1994 was sponsored by UK Government and industry following several poorly performing projects. The inefficiencies identified pointed to the need for partnering and collaboration in the construction sector. The Lathem report 1994 `constructing the team` a joint industry government report was based on a simple concept that through teamwork the construction industry could delight its consumers. The report acted as a wake up with all the urgency of an emergency siren. This was a report that had to be listened to, the industry couldnt but help but hear the cries for reform. The industry was ineffective, adversarial, fragmented, and incapable of delivering for its customers` and lacking respect for its employees` more than just ringing alarm bells the Lathem report set the agenda for reform and gave the industry targets. From this a raft of initiatives flowed. The report led to the establishment of the construction industry board to oversee reform and subsequent initiatives were the Egan report 1998 `Rethinking construction` the construction best practice programme, The movement for innovation` and construction excellence` all designed to drive the industry forward. 4.4  Evaluate the concept of sharing best practice and benchmarking the performance of a practice/firms activities Best practice is a method or technique, method, process, activity, incentive, or reward that is believed to be more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. When applied to a particular condition or circumstance. The idea is that with proper processes, check, and testing, a desired outcome can be delivered with fewer problems or unforeseen circumstances, best practice can also be defined as the most efficient and effective way of accomplishing a task , based upon repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of people. A given best practice is only applicable to a particular condition or circumstance and may have to be modified or adapted for similar circumstance. In addition, a best practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered. Despite the need to improve on processes as the environment changes , best practice is considered by some as business buzzword used to describe the process of developing and following a standard way of doing things that multiple organisations can use for managements, policy, and software systems. As a team becomes more popular, some organisations have begun using the term best practices to refer to what are in fact merely `rules` causing a linguistic drift in which a new term such as good ideas is needed to refer to what previously would have been called `best practice`. 4.5  Explain how sustainable Construction and environmental Management/Conservation Issues impact on the organisation and operation of a project/organisation. Sustainable construction Environmental management The strategy for sustainable construction is a joint industry and government initiative intended to promote leadership and behavioural change, as well as delivering benefits to both the construction industry and the wider economy. The output of the construction industry has a major impact on our ability to maintain a sustainable economy overall and has a major impact on our environment, moreover, it is clear that we cannot meet our declared environmental targets without dramatically reducing the environmental impact of buildings and infrastructure construction, we have to change the way we design and build. The business case for sustainable construction agenda is based upon increasing profitability by using resources more efficiently, firms who offer sustainable products and ways of working are more likely to secure building contracts, by enhancing their company image and profile in the market place by addressing issues related to corporate and social responsibility, and sustainable construction. Construction companies competing in this market place must address issues such as: Design quality Energy Health and safety Materials Procurement Skills Social responsibility Surface water management Waste Water use Facilities management Task 3 Organisation (2.2, 2.3, 2.4) 2.2  Identify the roles of the different professions/disciplines within the design construction and installation team and the main cycle of work activity. Design Client, lead consultant, CDM coordinator, Cost consultant, Lead designer, Architect structural engineer, services engineer, contractor Construction Principle contractor, managing director, contracts manager, project manager , site manager, assistant site manager, foreman. Labourer. Installation teams Surveyor, setting out engineer, groundworks subcontractor, brickwork subcontractor, steel frame subcontractor, concrete slab subcontractor, floor screed subcontractor, carpentry subcontractor, mechanical and electrical subcontractor, cladding contractor roofing contractor, telecoms contractor, scaffolding contractor, dry lining subcontractor, British gas southern electric. 2.3  Produce an organisation structure that includes examples and explanations of direct line, lateral functional and staff relationships and also explain with examples, span of control chain of command centralised versus decentralised and job design. Directors Managers Managers Section heads Section heads Section heads Section heads Section heads Section heads Managers Explanations of direct line. The director Directors have many business responsibilities for ensuring the success of their company, in areas such as health and safety, employment law and tax. The contracts Manager He / she will be responsible for the successful procurement, progress and completion of several contracts at any time. Planning and Control Planning Designing a methodical process for accomplishing the goals of the organisation / preparing the organisation for the future Organising Arranging the resources to carry out the plan / the process of creating the company structure, establishing relationships and allocating resources to achieve the organisational goals. Directing Guiding, leading and supervising employees to achieve the organisational goals Controlling Verifying that actual performance matches the plan/ if it does not match the actual plan then corrective action needs to be taken. Lateral functions There are also lateral functions in the job functions and personal roles in the areas of design, planning and construction there are senior managers and operative in all areas who need to liaise and work together to achieve the goals of the organisation. 2.4  Identify project based organisation structures. Health Safety Consultant CDM Coordinator Subcontractors Employees Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Assistant Manager Site Manager Project Manager Section heads CDM Coordinator The CDM co-ordinator is there to advise and assist with CDM duties  on notifiable jobs. They will: advise on selecting competent designers and contractors; help identify what information will be needed by designers and contractors; co-ordinate the arrangements for health and safety during the planning  phase; ensure that HSE is notified of the project; tell if the initial construction phase plan is suitable; and prepare a health and safety file (this contains useful information  needed to enable future cleaning, maintenance and alterations to be carried out  Safely). The appointment of the CDM co-ordinator is better done soon as possible, but no later than the initial design/preparation stage. Health and Safety consultant Normally familiar with working within a construction site environment, roaming various sites to ensure that health and safety standards are being met according to statuary regulations and company and client standards. The Project Manager A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized. The Site Manager He /She will be responsible for the day to day running of the site the job normally involves Producing the site layout plan Setting up the dimensional control of the works Interpreting the drawings and specifications Liaising with the architects and engineers Checking the quality of the work Ensuring a safe site environment Planning 3.1  Describe techniques used to organise the layout, resourcing and accommodation of the project The techniques used to organise the layout of the project is called a site layout plan. All construction projects of any notable size require the provision of substantial amounts of temporary facilities (TF). One of the initial tasks to be undertaken on any construction site is the construction of the temporary accommodation and associated site compound. The compound is required for safety and security whilst various types of temporary facilities are required the most common being, Office Accommodation   Ã‚  Ã‚   (Reception, General Office, Engineers Office, Project Managers Office etc.) Welfare Facilities Accommodation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (Canteen, Toilets, Showers, Drying Rooms etc.) Storage Accommodation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (Valuable and Hazardous Materials storage facilities) 3.2  Describe with examples, methods of work planning, monitoring and progress control u